Unlike the corresponding movement of Op. Its expanded ternary form includes a highly unusual return of the middle section in an unrelated key. The third movement is explicitly called a scherzo, but while it builds to a great climax, it is unhurried, and has the character of a minuet or waltz. The finale has a very predominant and distinctive main theme that is typical of a rondo, but Brahms constructs another full sonata form, albeit one with vestiges of the rondo, primarily a statement of the main theme at the outset of the development as in the first movement of the G-minor quartet.
This main theme is exuberant, but the subsidiary ideas are again very restrained. The piano begins with the distinctive opening gesture, a downbeat chord followed by an oscillating, harmonized neighbor-note motion, supported by left hand arpeggios. The oscillating motion is in triplet rhythm. This two-measure alternation is then restated with new harmonies on the first and last chords of the oscillation.
The response also reaches higher with a brief motion to B minor. It also includes a triplet rhythm in the third measure. In the last measure of this statement, the upper two strings join the cello in a rising approach to their statement of the opening gesture. The cello takes the bass arpeggios.
The harmonies are the same except for the last chord of the second upward response to the triplets, which diverts from B minor toward D major. The strings accompany with gentle chords on the first and second beats of each measure. The piano spins the winding, chromatic line further, expanding it and adding more harmonic movement. The cello plays a low note on the second beats of these implied duple groupings. The piano continues to play in octaves, rising in a chromatic line. The cello subtly inserts the oscillating triplet rhythm from the opening. Then all strings play it as the piano rests.
The piano line is repeated an octave higher in both hands. This time, the viola and cello enter against it on the triplet rhythm, and the response is taken by the piano left hand in octaves. Suddenly forceful, the three string instruments echo the piano bass, also in octaves, preparing for the powerful restatement of the main theme. It begins with a strong statement of theme in the piano. The strings add support in broken octaves at the second triplet gesture. At the point where the winding chromatic line would be expected, the triplets are extended.
They become even more agitated. After four more measures of triplets, the piano breaks into an ecstatic sequence of syncopated chords that move down the keyboard , with the strings supporting these and the pedal bass. The lower piano bass note finally moves down chromatically. The piano bass moves up, and the strings play another such slur at a lower level. The piano then begins a chordal descent on a syncopated upbeat. The strings answer against this, still in unison, with a vigorous figure that begins with two short notes, then ascends.
The piano takes up this vigorous figure in octaves as the strings repeat the dissonant slurs. The strings take the vigorous unison figure a second time as the piano plays another chordal descent.
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All of this continues to suggest E major. The piano plays chords against this in a broad short-long rhythm with octaves in the bass. After two bars, the viola drops out and the cello shifts up an octave. The string lines smooth out after two more measures, becoming quieter. The violin and cello are now no longer in unison and the piano bass, in octaves, harmonizes with them.
The music diminishes further in volume, the viola re-enters an octave above the cello, and all four instruments use the chromatic lines, now rising and falling, to lead to a long-delayed cadence in E major and the second theme group. The piano plays halting, expressive rising figures in octaves, decorated by rolled chords and appoggiaturas.
In the cello, under pizzicato chords from the upper strings, is a last vestige of Theme 1. The piano melody then broadens and the strings begin independent lines, the violin introducing triplets E major. The piano, in octaves and sixths, plays a downward-arching, sweetly winding chromatic melody. The strings harmonize and decorate this melody, the violin turning again to the bouncing and clashing triplet rhythm.
The melody comes to a pause on an expectant dissonance.
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It then slides up into a varied repetition in triplet rhythm, which the piano takes over from the violin. The piano bass and cello now provide a more solid foundation. The same expectant dissonance is reached, leaning into an incomplete cadence in B. The viola and cello add brief descending lines. The broad melody is also transferred to the violin as the piano continues its two-against-three patterns. The cello accompanies it with longer notes, and the piano moves to a series of smoothly arching triplet arpeggios and occasional rolled chords.
The melody is clearly the same, but it is not harmonized in sixths and it does not build in volume. The contour does not match exactly, and the underlying harmony suggests a continuation of G major. The violin plays the downward-arching, winding chromatic melody. After two bars, it is harmonized by the viola. The piano again plays smooth triplet arpeggios, now against a solid bass line, and the cello is absent. This time, the pausing dissonances are omitted and the winding lines continue. They build in volume after four measures. The cello enters in the fifth measure, doubling the piano bass, and the instruments come to a half-close in E minor.
In a suddenly quiet volume, the strings cut off this figure and repeat the approach to the half-close. The piano figure follows again, with subtly raised notes that suggest a return to major. The strings again play the approach to the half-close, now with a clear change to E major harmony. The piano begins, quietly in octaves, with repeated descending slurs. The pattern is then repeated a fourth higher. The piano attempts another sequence up another fourth, but the strings stall on their previous pitches, alternating with the piano three times in brief three-note groups.
The piano drops out as the strings begin a new theme. The violin and viola harmonize on a sweetly expressive espressivo and dolce downward chromatic line, while the cello plucks detached broken descending octaves. The line of the upper strings introduces triplet-rhythm upbeats, first in the viola, then in both instruments. They reach a cadence E major.
The arpeggios shadow the theme. The violin repeats its descending line with the viola harmony.
The cello, now bowed, has a more static line of octaves, allowing the piano bass to provide the main support, but it later adds syncopated rhythms. The line is extended with repetition, a shift up an octave, and an expanded cadence. At this extension, the viola triplets shift from the upbeat to the downbeat, providing a more active counterpoint to the violin line.
The expanded cadence provides great delayed satisfaction as the cello joins the viola triplets in harmony. The piano drops out at the cadence. The strings play a final theme based on the long-short rhythm from Theme 2 as heard at [m. As the cadence is approached, the violin introduces a lower neighbor-note figure in dotted rhythm that will become important in the first part of the development section. The piano enters to support the cadence in the last two bars. The cello itself adds rapid decorative arpeggios while the viola plays isolated plucked chords on the upbeats and downbeats.
The violin drops out for this statement of the final theme. At the point where the violin had introduced the dotted lower-neighbor figure, the piano right hand plays it in octaves. The left hand plays rapid upward figures with leaping octaves. Instead of coming to a cadence, the piano expands the neighbor-note figure upward as the strings, including the now-entering violin, add smooth rising chromatic lines.
The volume builds, and the key moves back to A major for the repeat of the long exposition. The last measure of the first ending is equivalent to the first measure of the movement. The first beat is a more powerful, widely spaced chord that includes the full strings. From the second beat, the material returns to the opening, and the repeat goes back to the second measure. Piano presentation of the theme with alternating triplet and straight rhythm.
Strong statement of theme and powerful extension in triplets, as at Expressive rising figures with last vestige of Theme 1, as at Descending chromatic line in strings, as at Final theme with long-short rhythms in strings, as at It begins with the dotted lower-neighbor figure in the piano, as did the first ending. At the end of the second measure, it deviates, rapidly changing harmony, and building in all instruments to an emphatic descending cadence in the new key of C major. The cello and violin pass an expanded version of the figure to each other.
The cello begins expressively and quietly, suggesting a motion to A minor relative key to C major. When the violin enters, it moves quickly back toward C major, and the cello entries that follow it actually imitate it in the lower octave. This is unexpected since the cello made the first entry. The viola rests through this passage. Under the two string instruments, the piano plays undulating arpeggios and bass notes that confirm the harmonic motion.
In addition to A minor and C major, hints are also made at F major as the volume builds. The viola joins the violin in unison, with the cello a third below, and they imitate the piano figures. The volume and intensity steadily build. The dissonant note D-flat is prominent. It seems to point to F minor, but this is never confirmed. The piano figures tighten, reaching up while the strings begin to march downward. It is gradually revealed that the goal is not F minor, but C minor, which is forcefully confirmed as the cello leaps down to join the unison upper strings in a lower octave.
The viola and cello cut this off with a quieter unison statement. The piano plays it again with new harmony, and the hushed string response, now including violin, is also in harmony, leading to a full C-minor cadence. The piano, however, keeps them alive in an active chordal accompaniment. Expressively, still in C minor, the piano plays thematic figures alternating between triplet and straight rhythm, exploiting this major rhythmic characteristic of the theme. The left hand plays wide, detached descending arpeggios. The strings respond after the beat with short triplet rhythms that dovetail with the piano figures.
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After four bars, the cello begins a steady, detached triplet rhythm as the piano right hand changes to slurred and off-beat chords. The steady triplets are passed first to the violin alone, then to the viola and cello , then to violin and viola, then back to viola and cello. The volume steadily builds over these exchanges. Finally, all three strings join together as they approach a climax.
The piano forcefully plays the thematic figures with thundering octaves. The strings, also forceful, add brief off-beat responses in triplets. New chromatic harmonies are introduced, and the intensity builds even more. Another high point is reached, and the piano begins to play sweeping triplet arpeggios in contrary motion.
The string responses are now in unison. They play a measure of steady triplets as another huge C-minor cadence is approached. After this cadence, the piano continues the triplet arpeggios in contrary motion, the unison strings continue to build, and a series of chromatic chords leads to another arrival, this time on C major , the change made explicit by a new key signature. Chromatic lines in the prevailing triplet rhythm are passed between the strings in unison and the piano bass in octaves. Against the low octaves, the strings break from their unison and play sighing, slurred chords that fail to establish a central harmony.
Finally, the piano plays these chords, which are syncopated in the right hand and slurred to resolutions in the left. The strings, who finally abandon their unison playing, then join the chords while the right hand takes over the chromatic triplet lines in octaves. The key of A minor relative to C major is established before the entry of closing theme material. After two bars, the strings take this over, and the piano moves to the rapid arpeggios and bass octaves from and [m.
The viola, with the violin, introduces the triplet upbeats familiar from the theme. The presentation after the strings take over roughly follows the pattern from the exposition at these points, but with far greater intensity. Brahms marks the passage appassionato. The right hand plays the short-long rhythms in leaping octaves while the left plays wide arpeggios. The lower strings, in harmony, echo the piano rhythms. The violin soon joins them. The piano rhythms reach high and introduce wailing dissonances. The piano right hand briefly plays the neighbor-note figure that ended the exposition and provided material for the beginning of the development.
This expands into an arching, cadence-like gesture. The strings immediately take this up in unison, prominently changing it from A minor to A major, heralding the return of the home key for the recapitulation. The left hand continues its wide, rolling arpeggios. The piano takes the arching figure from the strings, immediately changing it back to minor. The string-piano exchange is repeated, again moving to major and back to minor.
The piano drops out, and the viola, then the cello, imitate the violin in lower octaves. The strings then melt into the major key for the yearning chords that lead into the recapitulation. The piano takes over the string cadence and begins the theme, more subdued and an octave lower than at the beginning, with the right hand in the tenor register.
The harmonies and the alternation between triplet and straight rhythm are the same, however. The piano harmonies, however, remain in the lower register where the beginning of the theme was just played, and the chords are not rolled. In the fourth measure, a very subtle alteration begins. The piano reaches up higher and the chords are changed, introducing a minor-key flavor.
These subtle alterations continue for the next two measures. When the hemiola arrives, it begins a fourth higher and introduces skips at the end of each downward pattern. The key artfully shifts down to G major. In that key, the cello, then the other strings, quietly state the opening triplet figures, as expected.
The line is then stated an octave higher, also as expected. Instead of the piano bass, however, the violin and viola play the triplet response in octaves. Then an entirely new measure is inserted, a higher, harmonized statement of the opening rhythm in the piano. A measure late, the forceful string statement in octaves, now in C, leads to the transition.
This passage is similar to, and the same length as the strong statement of the theme and its extension from and [m. First of all, the expected arrival on C at the outset is harmonically diverted. In the fourth bar, the piano right hand changes to strong syncopated chords while the left hand maintains the triplet rhythm.
Most strikingly, the strings cling stubbornly to notes of the unison triplet statement that introduced the transition, maintaining a connection to C while the piano harmonies rove to other keys like D major or E minor. Finally, approaching the eighth bar, the strings begin to move, as do new off-beat piano chords. Leaping octaves replace the pedal point and the broken octaves. The goal of all this is the home key of A. The slurred descents and vigorous unison figures from and [m. Most of the parts are raised up a fifth, but some low piano bass octaves are moved down a fourth.
The viola does not enter at the end. The strings and piano reverse their roles from the exposition at and [m. The violin and cello play the expressive rising figures in octaves, while the piano takes the chordal harmonies and, in its bass, the vestige of the triplet rhythm from Theme 1.
The viola continues its long absence. The violin and cello broaden the melody and, in a continuation of the role reversal, the piano introduces the triplet rhythms, doubled in octaves between the hands A major. The piano and strings continue to reverse roles. The violin and cello play the long-short rhythm while the piano plays the now-harmonized sequence of descending triplets.
The viola finally enters after a bar absence to add harmony to the small climax. In an almost ironic analogous motion, the key makes a diversion to E major, where the main part of Theme 2 lay in the exposition. The piano plays the triplet rhythm, but in constant descents rather than the previous bouncing motion in the violin. The expectant dissonances are heard as expected.
The cello has, at this point, returned to its role as in the exposition. The key turns back home to A. Opening of theme with triplet decorations, analogous to and [m. The analogous harmonic motion is to C major. The analogous motion is to A minor, the home minor key, again establishing A as the tonal center for the second theme group in the recapitulation. A half-close in A minor is reached. The instrumentation is as in the exposition. Expressive descending line in strings with plucked cello, analogous to and [m. Extension and cadence, but the violin shift up an octave is a couple of notes later than in the exposition.
Analogous to and [m. Final theme with long-short rhythms in the violin and viola over the pulsating cello. The rapid arpeggios are in the piano left hand, not the cello. The right hand plays the long-short rhythm in octaves. The viola and cello respond in harmony, adding plaintive dissonance.
The passage is spun out significantly, making harmonic detours through C-sharp major and F major, where the violin joins the plaintive responses. The dotted lower-neighbor figure that played such a large role in the development is gradually introduced as the key slowly makes its way back to A major. The strings are held over bar lines. The entire passage builds in intensity and volume. The rapid arpeggios continue in the left hand while the right hand plays descending chords that settle down and come to a highly anticipatory half-close.
CODA [m. The strings imitate the piano figures one beat later and a fifth below, the violin and viola an octave apart and the cello a third below the viola. The figures work down over three measures. Then the piano harmonies introduce colorful chromatic inflections, still moving downward.
The string figures, now a bit shorter, also continue to move down. Both piano and strings slow down at the end of the phrase, coming to a very expressive half-close. The two hands of the piano are in octaves, but maintain the harmony in thirds further separated by an octave between them. The first three measures are a direct exchange in roles. At the point where the chromatic inflections are introduced, there is more variation, especially in the string harmonies.
The piano triplets closely follow where the strings had gone, adding an upward motion on the third beat of the measure. The prior approach to the half-close is expanded by four measures, with the piano octaves meandering further downward and the string harmonies stalling on a half-step sequence. After the strings and piano escape upward, a rapturous full cadence leads to the next phrase. They gradually descend. The piano right hand, which plays long-short octaves, moves down by octaves over four measures, eventually displacing the low triplets.
Finally, the strings come to a pause on an unusual dissonance. The piano octaves emerge into a gentle final descent to A, supported by the A-major chord in the strings. The violin and cello play in harmony, but the viola has an expressive independent line prominently featuring the foreign note F-natural. At the same time, the viola line becomes more active, still using chromatic motion at the end. It comes to rest with the other instruments.
Then, with a sudden flourish, the movement ends with a cadence featuring loud chords in the piano and a final emphatic statement of the main oscillating triplet motion from Theme 1, harmonized in thirds in the strings. A Section [m. The piano presents a melody that arches yearningly upward, then introduces isolated upbeat triplet rhythms on its downward side.
These are played against the regular duple groupings in the left hand, which rocks up and down in broken octaves. The viola doubles the violin at first, then breaks free as the piano reaches up again. The piano reaches a high point that is soothingly echoed by the violin at a lower level while the lower strings and piano bass continue their rocking motion.
The second triplet figure in the piano, however, leaps up, breaking into a trill at the high point. The piano then descends as in the first phrase, this time to a full cadence in E major. The strings trail behind as the piano bass establishes its rocking motion on an octave E. The piano right hand plays a lower descending line to a cadence, and the rocking bass moves down an octave to the very low register. The strings trail again, as the piano right hand drops out.
The cello also drops out, having gradually abandoned the rocking motion. Finally, the piano bass also stops, leaving the strings to play their rocking cadence figures on their own. Finally, the violin and viola drop out, and the cello alone plays the rocking figure on the whole step E—F-sharp, fading away to almost nothing.
The exposed whole-step motion of the cello will become prominent. The next section is based on sweeping, nearly unmeasured piano arpeggios. The pianist is instructed to play with the una corda , or soft pedal depressed. The arpeggios take up the first halves of these three measures.
The first one is followed by a repetition of the last rocking whole-step figure in the cello on E—F-sharp. The second reaches a third higher, but has fewer notes, as it begins with a leaping octave. This one is followed by the cello, now joined by the viola, on a rocking minor third instead of a whole step, suggesting that the music has changed to E minor. The third arpeggio is the longest and reaches an octave higher than the first two.
All three strings, in unison, use their upbeats to build in volume and reach upward. The arpeggio reaches up to the same high G as the last one, but the harmony below it has obviously changed. It quiets down as it descends, then it turns back around on the last beat as the strings make an octave descent. The soft pedal is again depressed. In the next measure, the cello drops out, the two upper strings come together on the note A, and the piano plays a brief, very quiet rising arpeggio on D major.
The cello re-enters to close off the measure, alone and almost inaudibly, with a new rocking whole-step figure, beginning a step lower than before, on D D—E. The first measure of b , which was transitional, is omitted. The D—E whole step figure in the cello at the end of the last measure takes the place of the E—F-sharp figure at the end of the first measure.
The first is followed by a rocking minor third in viola and cello on D—F. The second is followed again by the unison strings reaching upward and building. The arpeggio matching the first one at [m. In the last measure, the brief piano arpeggio is on C major, as would be expected, but the cello does not drop out at the beginning, the strings move to G a beat later than they did to A, and the cello does not play its last rocking whole-step figure. The violin holds the G from the end of the b section. In this first phrase, the violin takes the previous piano melody for the first two measures.
It decorates it with chromatic passing notes and leaning appoggiaturas , but the distinctive triplet rhythms are maintained. The piano plays two arpeggios using triplet rhythm in the first measure, then changes to broken octaves with groups of six in the right hand against groups of four in the left. The cello adds off-beat plucked chords [m. The piano maintains its rhythmic mixture, and the left hand continues to play broken octaves, but the six-note groups in the right hand become narrower, working down from broken sevenths to broken thirds.
The viola plays an arpeggio to begin an ornamented version of the melody. The cello and the violin follow in quasi-imitation. The violin takes over the triplet rhythm from the viola. The piano right hand, still in groups of six, winds up to another measure of broken octaves. In the second measure, the melody passes to the violin, which plays the trill. The cello follows it. The six-note piano groups become wave-like arpeggios.
The violin leads down from the trill, while the viola plays an arpeggio in triplets. The trailing lines are played by viola and cello. The piano continues to play its six-against-four rhythm. The violin leads the other strings in the extension, and the lower strings follow with the trailing lines. The piano moves to broken octaves on E in both hands, still maintaining its clashing motion.
The left hand drops out as the violin and viola play the rocking motion. The right hand again decorates its octaves before dropping out. Finally matching the previous statement in instrumentation, the cello alone plays the rocking E—F-sharp whole step. The piano enters against the cello on the last beat, in the middle range, with the same decorated broken octaves. The violin and viola play their rocking figures again, inflecting them to minor. The cello is again left alone, this time for a full measure, on the rocking E—F-sharp.
In the third measure, the violin and viola, becoming even quieter, move the minor-inflected rocking figures to B. The piano plays fragments of its broken octave figures. The cello plays two beats of the E—F-sharp motion alone before the last measure. This is essentially a repetition of the previous one, with rocking figures on B and a piano entry, but the cello now leads its slurred groups downward, anticipating an arrival on the new key of B minor for the middle section. The melody itself adapts to the triplet rhythm with longer notes after two bars, but at that point, the strings enter in unison, playing the familiar rocking figures from the main section, then reaching upward.
They are also marked forte , although they still play with mutes. They help round off the first phrase of the melody. It is a restatement of the previous phrase a fourth higher, still beginning in B minor. Halfway through, a subtle alteration helps to shift the key toward D minor, a third higher, which is supported by the harmony and by the unison strings when they enter with the rocking figures and their upward rise.
They begin like the previous phrases of the theme, but are half as long, and the unison strings enter with the rising lines, not the rocking figures. The piano left hand continues its six-note arching harmonized arpeggios. The first two phrases shift the harmony up from D minor to E minor.
Brahms even marks the last two bars dolce. At the end of the phrase, the viola also becomes independent and the piano left hand loses its harmony. All instruments settle down to a subdued half-close in B minor. The violin leads with a poignantly beautiful upward leap. The instruments all have independent lines. Two more leaping gestures from the violin increase in intensity.
Then, with descending syncopated leaps, the volume recedes again. After two bars, the viola joins the violin in the triplet rhythm, the cello still playing on the strong beats. The music gradually builds in excitement. After four bars, the piano, still in octaves, also joins in the triplet rhythm, playing continuously flowing lines with many chromatic notes and reaching to the upper register. The volume is suddenly hushed again. The string texture changes, with the cello now playing on all the beats while the violin and viola answer with two offbeat notes, the viola always in double stops.
The first measure of this pattern is repeated. Then there are two more bars of breathless anticipation. A cadence in B major is greatly anticipated, but cruelly avoided. The piano changes to full chords, still with octave doubling between the hands. The chromatic chords slow to longer rhythms, including chords held across bar lines, creating three bars of syncopation.
The excitement quickly abates, and the key gradually moves back toward E major. The piano, meanwhile, changes to its own arching figure after the the beat. The key has moved back to E, but minor-key inflections appear with the note C-natural in the cello. This measure is repeated. Throughout the re-transition, the piano has remained in octave doubling, in force since the entry at [m. This continues in a slow descent. It is quite chromatic, and avoids a complete confirmation of E major, saving this for the moment of reprise. The texture from the opening is reversed, and the strings mark the return of the main material by removing their mutes.
The viola enters in the fifth measure to take the echoing line previously played by the violin. The viola drops out again after playing its echoing line. The violin and cello continue the melody two octaves apart. Both play the trill at the high point. In the closing descent after the trill, the cello moves into a new harmony in sixths plus an octave with the violin, which continues the melody. The piano bass begins to establish the original rocking motion.
The violin completes the melody, and the trailing motion in harmony is taken by the two lower strings the viola entering again and the piano right hand. The cello drops out at the extension. The first descending line is played by the violin, now joined in unison by the viola. The piano right hand, now in the tenor range, continues its harmonies, slurred in two-note groups. The left hand has established the rocking motion. It moves to the very low octave, as expected, after the melodic descent. The right hand then takes the following trailing figure previously played by violin and viola.
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These instruments take over in the next bar, finally finding their original lines and notes. The rocking piano bass replaces the cello, which had entered here. Analogous to [m. Here, the music is virtually identical to its original presentation. The only difference is in the first arpeggio, which has fewer notes and is similar to the second one, as it begins with the leaping octave.
It differs from this second arpeggio only in the lower top note as heard in the original. Also, the strings remain without mu tes. At the very end, the viola and cello hold their low C rather than moving to G with the violin. The key of F minor, strongly suggested before at this point, is now firmly established, a much easier move than the sliding motion back to E major.
The first phrase is analogous to [m. The passionate melody is played by the strings instead of the piano right hand. The violin and viola are in octaves, and the cello harmonizes. The strings continue with the melody on the long notes, and the rocking figures formerly played by the strings are taken by the piano bass, the rapid arpeggios continuing in the right hand. The instrumentation from the preceding phrase is maintained, and that phrase is stated a fourth higher, as expected. The harmonic shift in the middle is to A-flat minor, confirmed by the piano bass octaves on the rocking figures and upward rise.
The piano continues its rapid arpeggios. The rising lines at the end of each wave are still transferred from the strings to the piano, but now it is the right hand, in high octaves, rather than the left hand in the bass, that plays them. The cello counters with a new descending line that mirrors this motion at the same time. The first wave makes an expected harmonic motion to B-flat minor. In the third wave, the same texture remains in force, violin and viola in unison, with the cello harmonizing them and the piano playing rapid upward arpeggios.
It turns to C minor, indicating the pull back toward F minor. As before, the wave is extended, spun out to a four-bar phrase, continuing to descend and diminishing in volume. The violin and viola remain in octaves until the half-close in F minor, the cello continuing to harmonize with them. The piano arpeggios slow down to six-note groups as this half-close is approached. The violin repeats and stretches out its notes for the half-close, but the viola, finally dropping its octaves with the violin, adds new harmonies along with the cello.
The piano also finally abandons its arpeggios and moves to the familiar two-note rocking figures, played in low bass octaves and moving by half-step. These are used to slowly wind the music downward and to move it back home to E major via E minor. The viola and cello play one more descent that also helps with that motion. The violin and viola use new triplet rhythms to shoot up an octave higher for the second measure of the melody.
The piano is more active. A faster arpeggio also places its right-hand broken octaves in the higher register. These are now in sixteenth notes, replacing groups of six with groups of eight and removing the clashing rhythms. Only the left hand broken octaves and the plucked cello chords and notes are unchanged. As before, the cello takes the melody at this point. The broken octaves in the piano bass also remain unchanged.
But the upper strings and the piano right hand are highly varied. The piano right hand plays descending arpeggios in the sixteenth-note rhythm already established. In the last measure of the phrase, these include a wide leap down and back up. The violin plays undulating six-note groups in the first two measures, taking that rhythm from the earlier piano part. The viola plays wide straight rhythms against this.
The six-note groups pass to the viola at that point. The cello adds two new plucked chords. The passage again closely follows its model with more embellishment. For one measure, the piano left hand briefly breaks from its original broken octaves to join the faster sixteenth-note arpeggios, now rising, with the right hand. It then returns to the broken octaves. The violin now has the melody from the outset and retains it up to the trill and beyond.
The viola and cello add more decorative lines, including plucked cello chords and triplet arpeggios. The piano right hand continues in sixteenth-note motion with broken octaves and arpeggios. The viola and cello gradually return to their original patterns, finally reaching them on the trailing lines. The embellished version continues. The violin has its original line throughout.
The viola and cello reach a bit higher. The piano bass is as before. It finally does reach those, still in sixteenth notes, against the trailing viola and cello, which return to their original pitches. The violin and viola play the rocking motion where expected. The right hand unexpectedly drops out immediately at that point, and the left hand octaves are extended halfway through the bar before that hand also drops out, leaving the upper strings alone.
The cello, with the mute replaced, is totally exposed for the measure of rocking E—F-sharp motion. Coda [m. They begin an epilogue-like meditation, in harmony, on the rocking figures. The cello adds a line with groups of repeated notes, moving down chromatically, in clashing triplet rhythm. The piano begins with bare low octaves and broad long-short rhythms on E. After two measures, it flowers into a fully harmonized rising line, as do the upper strings. The cello and piano bass plunge down, the former abandoning its triplets.
The upper strings take over in a descending approach to an expected cadence. The same passage is varied, with the piano right hand now taking the lead on the rocking figures, the violin contributing harmony. The viola and cello both take the repeated notes in triplets, but they remain static. The descending chromatic motion is played by the piano bass. The two upper strings join the piano on the rising line, which now reaches higher. This time, the cello persists with its triplets during the rising line. The piano and upper strings also take the descent toward the cadence, which is now from a higher level.
The violin uses it to break into a gentle trill on the keynote E. Under it, the two lower strings and the piano play an arching line derived from the rocking figures, harmonized in thirds, then descending and expanding. The piano bass reaches a pedal point on a low octave E. Under the third and highest trill, the viola leaves the rocking figures to the cello and piano. Then the piano stops and the violin stops its trill, holding the note. The cello is exposed again on its now familiar solo rocking figures on E—F-sharp, taking up a measure with it, as usual.
The violin holds its octave, and the piano plays the familiar version of this arpeggio on the first two beats. Then its bass, rather than the cello, plays the rocking E—F-sharp. With a very elegant alteration, the piano changes a second arpeggio from the diminished seventh to the E-major chord. The viola and cello change their harmony accordingly. The rocking figure in the piano bass is inverted into a leading tone figure, moving to the last, transfigured chord. Beginning with an upbeat, the strings, in dolce unison, play the winding, minuet-like theme.
It consists of two four-bar units. They are nearly identical. The first, after introducing its only shorter eighth-note rhythm, leads into the second. As it does, the strings extend their downward line to confirm an arrival on D. But the piano statement immediately moves back home to A. Against this statement, the strings, in groups of two in all possible pairings, in unison and in harmony, play leaning upbeat figures. At this point, the volume also begins to build. It continues to reach further upward, building in intensity and confirming E major.
After three bars, the piano breaks into chords, along with octaves, reaching forte. The strings come together with these chords. After emphatically suggesting an arrival on E major, the harmony suddenly seems to move back to A again in figures passed between piano and strings. Piano Quartet in A Major, Op. Luigi Cherubini Piano Concerto No. Francesco Cilea Rebecca Clarke Sonata for Viola or Cello and Piano Muzio Clementi Samuel Coleridge-Taylor Clarinet Quintet in f minor, Op.
Arcangelo Corelli Jean Cras String Trio String Quartet Piano Quintet Bernhard Crusell Quartet No. Carl Czerny Nancy Dalberg Franz Danzi Louis Dauprat La Nuit for Viola or Cello and Piano. Ferdinand David String Quartet in a minor, Op. Carl Davidov Karl Davydov Piano Quintet in g minor, Op. Frederick Delius Cello Sonata in D Major Otto Dessoff Edouard Destenay Trio No. Albert Dietrich Cello Sonata in C Major, Op. Constantin Dimitrescu Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf String Trio in D Major.
Ignacy Dobrzynski Piano Trio in a minor, Op. Ernst von Dohnanyi Cello Sonata in B flat Major, Op. Violin Sonata in c minor, Op. Gaetano Donizetti Piano Trio in E flat Major Piano Trio in D Major String Quintet 2 Violas. Friedrich Dotzauer String Quintet 2 Cellos in d minor, Op. Felix Draeseke Franz Drdla Sem Dresden Georg Druschetzky Cello Sonata in D Major. Promenade Sentimentale for Piano Trio. Piano Quartet in a minor. Louis Dumas Lamento for Viola and Piano Thomas Dunhill Piano Quartet in b minor, Op.
Gabriel Dupont Jan Ladislav Dussek Piano Quartet in E flat major, Op. Antonin Dvorak Four Miniatures for 2 Violins and Viola, B. Cypresses for String Quartet, B. String Sextet A Major, Op. Anton Eberl Joachim Eggert Andreas Ehrhardt Julius Eichberg Skizzen Sketches for String Trio, Op.
Edward Elgar Violin Sonata in e minor, Op. Piano Quintet in a minor, Op. Maurice Emmanuel Sonata for Violin and Piano in d minor, Op. String Quartet in B flat Major, Op. Georges Enescu Aubade for String Trio String Octet in C Major, Op. Johann Carl Eschmann String Quartet in d minor circa Michele Esposito Victor Ewald String Quartet in C Major, Op.
Joseph Eybler String Quintet 2 Violas in E flat major, Op. Philipp Fahrbach, Jr. Louise Farrenc Trio in E flat Major, Op. Trio in e minor, Op. Alexander Fesca Septet No. Friedrich Fesca Zdenek Fibich Piano Quartet in e minor, Op. Max Fiedler String Quintet 2 Violas in d minor, Op. Arkady Filippenko Anton Filtz Wilhelm Fitzenhagen Gavotte No. Ave Maria for 4 Cellos, Op. Concert Waltzes for 4 Cellos, Op. Josef Bohuslav Foerster Arthur Foote Violin Sonata in g minor, Op. Piano Quartet in C Major, Op. String Quartet in D Major Eduard Franck Richard Franck James Friskin Phantasie for String Quartet Phantasie in e minor for Piano Trio Phantasy for Piano Quintet Piano Quintet in c minor Gaspard Fritz Violin Sonata in D Major, Op.
Oscar Fuchs Robert Fuchs Terzetto No. Serenade No. Carl Futterer Ladislao Gabrielli ??
String Quartets Box 1
Niels Gade Five Novelletten for Piano Trio, Op. Piano Trio in F Major, Op. String Quintet 2 Violas in e minor, Op. Contantino Gaito Cello Sonata in f minor, Op. Hans Gal Piano Quartet in B flat Major, Op. Vincent Gambaro 17?? Philippe Gaubert Franz Xaver Gebel Friedrich Gernsheim Felice Giardini Paul Gilson Louis Glass String Sextet in G Major, Op. Alexander Glazunov Five Novelettes for String Quartet, Op. Suite for String Quartet, Op. Belaiev for String Quartet, Op. Reinhold Gliere String Octet in D Major, Op. Mikhail Glinka Sonata for Viola and Piano in d minor Mikhail Gnesin Requiem for Piano Quintet, Op.
Benjamin Godard Four Morceaux for String Trio, Op. Alexander Goedicke Karl Goepfart Hermann Goetz Piano Quartet in E Major, Op. Carl Goldmark Rubin Goldmark Charles Gounod String Quartet in a minor No. Theodore Gouvy Piano Quintet in A Major, Op. Paul Graener Kammermusikdichtung for Piano Trio, Op. Marie Grandval Alexander Gretchaninov Leo Grill Johann Benjamin Gross Gabriel Grovlez Adalbert Gyrowetz Joseph Haas String Quartet in A Major, Op. Henry Hadley Reynaldo Hahn Piano Quintet in f minor Johan Halvorsen Suite in g minor for Violin and Piano Asger Hamerik Franz Xaver Hammer String Quintet 2 Violas No.
Howard Hanson Quartet in One Movement, Op. Emil Hartmann Piano Trio in B flat Major, Op. Hartmann Franz Josef Haydn Three String Trios, Op. Anton Hegner William Heilman Peter Heise Cello Sonata in a minor Gustav Helsted Fini Henriques Mazurka for Violin and Piano, Op. Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel Adolph Henselt Louise Heritte-Viardot Piano Quartet in d minor, WoO Friedrich Hermann Capriccio No. Suite in d minor for 3 Violins, Op.
String Quartet in e minor, Op. Eduard Herrmann Heinrich von Herzogenberg String Quintet 2 Violas in c minor, Op. Richard Heuberger Alfred Hill Wilhelm Hill Ferdinand Hiller Piano Quintet in G Major, Op. Ludwig Hoffmann Franz Anton Hoffmeister Heinrich Hofmann String Sextet in e minor, Op. Joseph Holbrooke Augusta Holmes Gustav Holst Terzetto for Flute, Oboe and Viola Iver Holter Julius Hopfe Herbert Howells Phantasy String Quartet, Op. Morceaux de Concert for Viola and Piano, Op. Hans Huber Phantasie for Violin and Piano in g minor, Op.
Johann Nepomuk Hummel Cello Sonata in A Major, Op. William Hurlstone Piano Trio in G Major Henry Holden Huss String Quintet 2 Violas in c minor. Jacques Ibert Vincent d'Indy Lied for Cello or Viola and Piano, Op. String Sextet in B flat Major, Op.
Wilfrid d'Indy Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov Spanish Serenade for Viola and Piano John Ireland Phantasie in a minor for Piano Trio John Jacobsson Salomon Jadassohn Hyacinthe Jadin String Quartet in E flat Major, Op. Louis-Emmanuel Jadin Eugen von Jambor String Quartet in g minor, Op.
Leos Janacek Sonata for Violin and Piano Leopold Jansa Gustav Jenner Sonata for Clarinet and Piano in G Major Gustav Jensen Joseph Joachim Joseph Jongen Two Serenades for String Quartet, Op. Paul Juon Trio Caprice Piano Trio No. Rhapsody for Piano Quartet, Op.
Dmitri Kabalevsky String Trio, Op. Robert Kahn Cello Sonata in d minor, Op. Trio in g minor, Op. Trio Serenade in f minor, Op. Viktor Kallinikov Two Miniatures for String Quartet Johann Wenzel Kalliwoda Six Nocturnes for Viola and Piano, Op. Edvin Kallstenius Sigfrid Karg-Elert Hugo Kauder Trio in d minor for Oboe or Violin, Viola and Piano Hugo Kaun Edgar Stillman Kelley Johann Friedrich Kelz Aram Khachaturian Trio for Clarinet or Viola, Violin and Piano Friedrich Kiel Viola Sonata in g minor, Op.
Three Romances for Viola and Piano, Op. Three Waltzes for String Quartet, Op. New Waltzes for String Quartet, Op. Wilhelm Kienzl Theodor Kirchner Four Short Works for Piano Trio. Six Canonic Pieces for Piano Trio. Seven Character Pieces for Piano Trio. Serenade for Piano Trio. Ein Gedenkblatt, Op. Zwei Terzette for Piano Trio, Op. Nur Tropfen Miniatures for String Quartet. August Alexander Klengel Julius Klengel String Sextet, Op. Friedrich Klose String Quartet in E flat Major August Klughardt Iwan Knorr Friedrich Koch Jaroslav Kocian Franz Koczwara c.
Intermezzo for String Trio. Charles Koechlin Hans Koessler String Quintet 2 Violas in d minor. Volksliedchen for String Quartet, Op. Janusz de Kopczynski circa Alexander Kopylov Erich Wolfgang Korngold Piano Trio , Op. Wanderstimmungen for String Trio.
Mikhail Kourbanov Souvenir d'Alexandre Borodine for String Quartet Leopold Kozeluch Joseph Martin Kraus Stephan Krehl Alexander Krein Poem for String Quartet, Op. Fritz Kreisler String Quartet in a minor. Conradin Kreutzer Piano Quartet in e minor Emil Kreuz Liebesbilder for Viola and Piano, Op. Franz Krommer Wind Octet No. String Quartet in G Major, Op. String Quartet in C flat Major, Op.
String Quartet in A flat Major, Op. Arnold Krug Ivan Krzhanovsky Cello Sonata in g minor, Op. Carl Matthias Kudelski String Trio in G Major, Op. Friedrich Kuhlau Grand String Quartet in a minor, Op. Kaspar Kummer Fantasie in C Major for String Quartet Richard Kursch Kammertrio No. Toivo Kuula Josef Labor Franz Lachner String Quintet 2 Cellos in c minor, Op. Ignaz Lachner Quartet for 4 Violins in G Major, Op. Paul Lacombe Piano Quartet in c minor, Op. Josef Lanner Bruder Halt! Galopp, Op. Die Werber Waltzes Op. Die Osmanen Waltzes Op. Die Romantiker Waltzes, Op. Abendsterne Waltzes, Op.
Cerrito Polka, Op. Die Mozartisten Waltzes Op. Ferdinand Laub Sylvio Lazzari Luise Adolpha Le Beau Romanze for Violin and Piano, Op. Jean-Marie Leclair Charles Lefebvre Suite No. Paul Le Flem Violin Sonata in g minor Nechledil Masch for String Quartet. Maximillian von Leidesdorf Guillaume Lekeu Violin Sonata in G Major. Piano Quartet Franciszek Lessel Les Vendredis for String Quartet.
Max Lewandowsky String Sextet in c minor, Op. Frank Limbert Sonata for Viola and Piano in c minor, Op. Franz Limmer Adolf Lindblad Johan Lindegren String Quintet 2 Violas in F Major. Peter Lindpaintner String Trio in D Major, Op. Karol Lipinski Franz Liszt Hungarian Rhapsody No. Mephisto Waltz No. Henry Litolff Matthew Locke Charles Martin Loeffler Two Rhapsodies for Oboe, Viola and Piano String Quartet in a minor Music for 4 Stringed Instruments String Quartet.
Jean Baptiste Loeillet Trio Sonata in b minor for Piano Trio. Carl Loewe Alessandro Longo Suite for Viola and Piano, Op. Piano Quintet in E Major, Op. Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia Piano Quintet in c minor, Op. Sergei Lyapunov Mykola Nikolai Lysenko String Quartet in d minor-World Premiere Edition. Walter Macfarren Cello Sonata in e minor Alexander MacKenzie Adela Maddison Alberic Magnard Gustav Mahler Amanda Maier Six Pieces for Violin and Piano Sonata for Violin and Piano in b minor Witold Maliszewski Otto Malling String Octet in d minor, Op.
Benedetto Marcello Heinrich Marschner Romanza for Piano Trio. Henri Marteau String Trio in f minor, Op. Quintet for Clarinet and String Quartet, Op. Giuseppe Martucci Cello Sonata in f sharp minor, Op. Violin Sonata in G Major, Op. Joseph Marx Trio Phantasie for Piano Trio Rhapsodie for Piano Quartet in A Major Scherzo for Piano Quartet in d minor Ballade for Piano Quartet in a minor Emilie Mayer Sonata for Violin and Piano in a minor, Op. Sonata for Violin and Piano in e minor, Op. Notturno for Violin and Piano in d minor, Op. Joseph Mayseder John Blackwood McEwen Nikolai Medtner Ludwig Meinardus Erkki Melartin Henryk Melcer Arnold Mendelssohn Felix Mendelssohn Sonata for Viola and Piano in c minor String Symphony No.
Giacomo Meyerbeer Clarinet Quintet in E flat Major Ernst Mielck Darius Milhaud Franz Mittler Emil Mlynarski Polonaise for Violin and Piano, Op. Ernest Moeran Piano Trio in D Major. String Trio in G Major. Leonardo Moja Sonata for String Trio in d minor, Op. Roderich von Mojsisovics Heinrich Molbe Bernhard Molique Stanislav Moniuszko Ignaz Moscheles Alexander Mosolov Moritz Moszkowski Jules Mouquet Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Nikolai Myaskovsky Josef Myslivecek String Quintet 2 Vla No. Eduard Napravnik Pietro Nardini Sonata for Viola and Piano in f minor.
Ernst Naumann Karl Nawratil Oskar Nedbal Sonata for Violin and Piano in b minor, Op. Joachim Bruun de Neergaard String Quartet , Op. Alberto Nepomuceno Franz Neruda Sigismund Neukomm Carl Nielsen Ludolf Nielsen Alexander Nikolsky Two Pieces for String Trio Kurt Noack Ludvig Norman Zygmunt Noskowski Vitezslav Novak Jozef Nowakowski Jacques Offenbach String Sextet in D Major Juan Oliver y Astorga Max d'Ollone Piano Trio in a minor Franz Ondricek Norman O'Neill Piano Trio in One Movement, Op.
George Onslow Viola Sonata No. Wind Quintet in F Major, Op. Ignatius de Orellana