- Una autobiografía
- La búsqueda de un sueño (A Dream Called Home Spanish edition)
- jozomibola.tk: Especial romance: Kindle Store
De animales a dioses [Sapiens. Narrated by: Carlos Manuel Vesga. Narrated by: Gustavo Bonfigli. Narrated by: Dave Ramos. By: Robert T. Narrated by: Jordi Boixaderas. Narrated by: Mario Borghino. Narrated by: Jose Manuel Vieira. Narrated by: Mariana Atencio. Narrated by: Fernando Manrique. Narrated by: full cast. Narrated by: Lourdes Arruti. Stieg Larsson. Narrated by: Jordi Brau. Narrated by: Mariluz Parras.
Narrated by: Artur Mas. Narrated by: Liz Flores. Narrated by: Diego Angel Peralta. Narrated by: Oscar Lopez Avila. Narrated by: Chloe Malaise. Narrated by: Jorge Ramos. A spot check on the colonial period and the 19th century suggests that the massive undertaking lacked American contacts, or at least this was not noted in identifying the editors. In spite of Manual's problems, it is to date the best integrative  history of the literature of the Hispanic World. Most of these essays by the well-known Brazilian critic and social commentator were translated by the editor, who selected and collated them from the author's books, interviews, and articles.
A respected critic of Machado de Assis, the editor has also provided many footnotes and an informative introduction to the principal theme; i. The book's sixteen chapters consider the misalliance of cultural forms and national reality in a variety of contexts including literature, politics, and film.
In every instance the author's insights are remarkable and often quite provocative. To be sure, the disfunction escaped Alencar himself, who remained unaware of such incongruities. Clearly Schwarz views Brazil's dependency on derivative cultural forms with some pessimism, which explains his admiration for Machado de Assis and his novels grounded in irony and disenchantment. For similar reasons he admires the late Anatol Rosenfeld, who avoided the aprioristic idealism of the right no less than the reductionism of the dogmatic left, a stance that, as he points out in a chapter on the late philosopher, resulted in being pilloried by both sides of the national spectrum.
There seems to be but a single typographical error viii and, for the most part, the translations range from adequate to quite good. Even in the shadow of translation, however, the breadth and depth of analysis are well worth the reader's effort. The book is divided into eight sections that follow a brief introduction. In discussing sixteen different critical tendencies, archetypal criticism, feminism, psychoanalysis, and linguistics, among others, Urbina uses invariably the same pattern: 1 respectful commentary of about five or six specific studies that use the particular point of view, 2 summary and evaluation of their good points, 3 a challenge from the point of view of the theory of signs.
The process of writing is seen as a translation of one system of signs into another, bearing in mind that an absolute equivalence is impossible. He does, however, proceed to discuss this point in the following section, where the main focus is on the function of the process of reading as it appears in the novels. An extremely brief conclusion constitutes the seventh chapter and this part of the study could have definitely been extended with a more detailed discussion.
Furthermore, the presence of so many diverse critical opinions mostly quoted in their original tongues often buries Urbina's voice and one could wish that more provocative and daring questions had been raised by the author of the study. In addition, one of the noticeable shortcomings of the book is the lack of attention it pays to the woman as a sign and the paradigmatic patterns she creates. Weldt-Basson explores the rich narrative of Roa Bastos's second novel in this perceptive study of the use of narrative dialogues.
Undoubtedly I the Supreme is the novelist's most complicated work to date. It offers a wealth of examples of intertextuality and dialogic perspectives including an implied dialogue between the reader and the text. Weldt-Basson establishes the connection between this novel and the novelist's previous work, the seminal Hijo de hombre , as well as Son of Man, , and early collections of short fiction. She reviews the novel's fragmented structure by focusing on its complex use of narrative voice and symbolism.
In her comprehensive analysis of Roa Bastos's novel she stresses the fact that a specific type of discourse at the same time that it is individualized is also social in nature. She discusses the dialogic relationship between the novel and history and examines how the novel both answers-questions and parodies historical texts at the same time that it amplifies and exaggerates historical events. While the critic investigates Roa's use of historical documents, she studies the incorporation of nonhistorical intertexts into the corpus of the novel. She concludes that these dialogic interpretations reveal two fundamental types under which all other dialogic variants may be subsumed: 1 a dialogue among the voices of the characters and narrators within the novel, and  2 a dialogue between I the Supreme and other texts outside the novel -texts that have been incorporated into its pages through allusion, citation, and parody.
On a broader scale, these two types of dialogism imply a dialogue between the reader and the text. The volume contains an introduction, four chapters, and a conclusion. Chapter 1 studies voice and dialogism in the novel. In Chapter 2 Weldt-Basson explores the dialogue between reader and text. The third chapter is an analysis of the dialogue between the novel and historical intertexts, while the last chapter analyzes the relationship between the novel and nonhistorical texts. The volume contains a biblography and an index. The bibliography totals seventeen pages and is an excellent overview, not only of the works of Roa Bastos but of contemporary literary theory in general and of discourse in particular.
At the end of the volume one comes face to face with the possibility of three authors: Roa Bastos, the author-compiler, and the implied author as constructed by the reader. This novel implies a reader with a high degree of knowledge of historical texts dealing with the Francia years, thus making the novel's dethroning of the authority of cited sources accessible to its reader. Similarly, the implied reader must have a high degree of literary culture in order to perceive the novel's relationship to other authors and their writings, necessary components for the comprehension of I the Supreme.
This well-conceived theoretical study offers the reader new insights with which to judge one of the most important novelists Paraguay has produced. These handbooks, each designed to furnish an overview of current Spanish usage, appear to have much in common. Both devote a good deal of attention to the intricacies of vocabulary and provide ample data regarding the grammatical structure of the language. Using Spanish and Contemporary Spanish also supply translations of all examples, and differentiate between studied linguistic practice and those uses appropriate to less formal contexts.
Beyond superficial similarities, however, the works differ significantly regarding both what is offered and what is expected of the reader. Nevertheless, the striking richness offered here suggests that its chief role may come to be that of reference manual. Examples of each register are provided, along with abundant commentary on the features presented. Ordered alphabetically by the English equivalent, the entries present in diagrammatic form the most general Spanish term s , under which is offered a gamut of related words. The latter items are usually arrayed in accordance with a scale particular to the semantic field at hand, and all equivalents are marked, when appropriate, as to level, geographical extension, and peculiar grammatical features.
Here, too, good use is made of diagrams, each of which has been formulated to convey the relevant information in as clear a fashion as possible. It is impossible in a brief review to do justice to the completeness of Batchelor and Pountain's grammatical commentaries. Improving markedly on the usual lists of verbs accompanied by a preposition which appears before subsequent infinitives e. Shortly thereafter in this subdivision we find an enumeration of infinitives, nouns, and adjectives, each of which may be followed by one of various prepositions together with specifications of the exact meaning of the items given; , as well as a treatment of those cases in which Spanish and English differ with regard to prepositional use A helpful index of Spanish vocabulary items rounds out the volume The writers of Contemporary Spanish state that this text is intended to satisfy the needs of several groups of language learners, including students, professionals, and tourists ix.
It is clear that the author of this section presumes less expertise on the part of readers than do Batchelor and Pountain. Consequently, Cassell's presentation is somewhat less complex than that of Batchelor and Pountain but nonetheless furnishes a solid overview of the areas investigated. Noteworthy here is the use of the star symbol to point out particular important observations e.
A refreshing feature of this exposition is the presence of references to the inevitability of change both in language and in the criteria for acceptability e. Appearing with some frequency in both are indications of register e. Part 2 offers sixty-eight sets of templates for oral and written expression, organized by theme and encompassing a wide range of situations.
Under each rubric we find lists of sentences which the novice may imitate, phrases often arranged by degree of formality, emphasis, or brevity. Sections concerned with written expression provide the reader samples of informal and formal letters on a variety of topics included here are a curriculum vitae and newspaper announcements of several types; , , and are followed by suggestions and models for essay writing and for the preparation of formal reports Perhaps most interesting in this last part of the handbook are a brief compilation of English borrowings and one of proverbs subdivided thematically At the end of the study are appendices showing conjugations and a short index of topics This third major section is perhaps the most problematic component of Contemporary Spanish.
Nevertheless, Part 1 and, more especially, Part 2 of this manual should prove helpful to an audience which has acquired an elementary knowledge of the tongue. Batchelor and Pountain's overview, on the other hand, requires of the reader both a more extensive prior exposure to Spanish and a greater appetite for mastering the complexities of this language. Those possessed of the necessary sophistication and dedication undoubtedly will find in Using Spanish an invaluable instrument for further development of their linguistic skills.
This book, as the title suggests, is a dictionary in which a large number of Spanish grammatical rules, structures and idioms have been organized in alphabetical order for easy reference. The individual entries, some in Spanish and others in English, are not limited to those items mentioned above, but also cover such items as definitions of grammatical terms, conjugation paradigms for regular and irregular verbs, and information regarding accentuation and punctuation. Each entry lists the part of speech or grammatical function of the item, its Spanish or English equivalent, and examples of how it is used in Spanish sentences with their English translations.
In the case of grammatical structures, the entries include brief explanations in English of when and how they are used. Any exceptions to the rules are duly noted. Another interesting feature of this dictionary are the tables listing common English and Spanish abbreviations, metric measurements and their U. Two other features of the dictionary are worth noting.
First, many lexical and idiomatic items are listed in both Spanish and English. For example, there is an entry for a causa de vs. Second, there is also extensive cross-referencing to direct users to related entries with further explanations and examples. Explanations are concise and clear. Likewise, the examples which accompany each entry are generally sufficient and appropriate for clarifying the point under consideration.
However, it should be noted that the dictionary is not, nor does it purport to be, complete. There are a few cases where further explanation or additional examples would be helpful. One case of this is found in the entry for que vs. In a similar vein, the discussion of definite articles does not mention the omission of the definite article with the names of languages after the preposition de. The entry for definite articles also states that the definite article is sometimes used before infinitives which function as nouns, but does not indicate what determines the use or omission of the definite article in this context.
A fourth example occurs in the entry for the days of the week. It is not intended for use as a textbook  or for beginning level learners: there are no exercises, the explanations are generally brief, and the grammatical terminology e. The fourth edition of Basic Spanish Grammar continues to be the nucleus of a complete Spanish program consisting of the three books cited above and five manuals, each covering the specific professions of teaching, law enforcement, medicine, social services and business. It is designed for use in intensive, regular two-semester or three-quarter courses.
A restful shade of blue suffuses the entire grammar text. The covers are blue, and the vocabulary lists, grammatical charts and many of the headings are blue as well. The only photography in the text black and white is pretty much limited to the pages introducing new chapters.
Four black-and-white maps labeled in blue precede the table of contents. Basically this is a no-frills text emphasizing content and variety over packaging. The authors suggest that for classes stressing oral communication, the nuclear text be combined with Spanish for Communication SFC , while for classes needing a more elementary approach, the main text be combined with Getting Along in Spanish GAS. For classes composed of aspiring professionals, the main text is suitable for use during part of the class period, and then students can divide up into groups and choose for each group whichever of the five manuals corresponds closest to their professional interest.
The authors affirm their creative response to suggestions made by the reviewers of their previous editions and present their program as career specific. The two communication manuals have also been overhauled. For example, Getting Along in Spanish has new lessons on outdoor activities, personal care, and academic affairs, and Spanish for Communication now introduces the theme of food earlier and has additional lessons on academics and fitness.
The main text teaches ser and estar in chapter three, formal commands in lesson nine, and the preterit and imperfect in ten and twelve respectively. Wisely, the final five chapters 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 are devoted in their entirety to the use of the present and imperfect subjunctive. Vocabulary lists in all three texts are divided first into cognates and non-cognates, and then the latter is further divided according to syntactic function.
In addition, the two manuals present a section called Aprenda estas palabras even before each section's vocabulary list that features cartoon drawings to exemplify the lexical concepts tinder study. Dialectal variants and synonyms are well covered in the lists of all three books so that frazada , cobija and manta GAS 49 and many other lexical pairs and triads appear as single entries.
Vowel shifts in stem-changing verbs are indicated by means of a colon, e. The Spanish dialogues at the beginning of each chapter of the manuals the nuclear text introduces only vocabulary and grammar and contains no dialogues are divided into two or three manageable segments accompanied by pencil drawings to encourage students to visualize concepts and not to think in English. A series of appendices in the basic text includes a pronunciation key also covering rhythm, intonation, linking, syllabification, and accentuation and a verb guide.
The manuals have pronunciation keys but no verb guide. The notas culturales that occur in the two  manuals contain useful and timely facts that cannot fail to heighten student interest in the Spanish-speaking countries: that, for instance, the grading system at Hispanic universities uses numbers instead of letters and that the numbers vary from country to country , that many of the countries have nationalized health care with government-subsidized facilities, and that many doctors make house calls. Most lessons conclude with a thematically appropriate cartoon, proverb, or riddle.
The more advanced alternative manual, Spanish for Communication, follows a similar format substituting some of the features more crucigramas and fewer cartoons, for example and offering a supplementary reading exercise after every three lessons that typically deals with news items astrology, international relations, sports.
A more serious problem is that many of the most difficult words from these ads are not listed in the dictionary -the newly revised dictionary, which the authors point out with pride- so how are students going to be able to order churrasco GAS at Juanito's in Miami if they can't identify what it is? It's no help to look these words up in the Spanish-English vocabulary at the back of the manuals, because they are not to be found. This is especially irritating in the case of the idiom hacer la sobremesa, the pleasant Hispanic custom of lingering at the table after a meal.
Despite the fact that the idiom is the subject of a nota cultural on page of Getting Along in Spanish , the idiom fails to appear in the Spanish English dictionary under either hacer or sobremesa. Versatility is Jarvis and Lebredo's watchword, and they have gone to tremendous lengths to attain it in this impressive assemblage of materials. This book was developed for speakers of Spanish in response to a need for materials devoted to the writing of business communications. The text is divided into three parts, each with various units.
Part One grammar includes accentuation, syllabification, punctuation, vocabulary, morphology, and syntax. There are plenty of examples of correct and incorrect usages and vocabulary lists of synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, anglicisms, latinisms, etc. In some cases, especially for the lexical units, there are dialectal comments specifically for Puerto Rico. While the information in Part One is relevant and will help students improve their linguistic understanding of Spanish, there are some problematic areas. For example, the explanation and corresponding exercise on the accentuation of verb-clitic constructions i.
The unit on morphology covers the principal parts of speech; however, the descriptions are uneven in that some categories are simply defined i. For verb paradigms, the vosotros form is not presented, although the future subjunctive is, and the verb charts are delineated semantically instead of structurally i. The discussion of object pronouns 79 is confusing and erroneous.
Lastly, there is no mention of reflexive pronouns. The unit on syntax is quite thorough, including noun phrases, verb phrases, and direct, indirect, and circumstantial complements. There are descriptions of simple and compound sentences, the latter being fully exemplified. The analysis of the passive and active voices with impersonal verbs i. Part Two presents extended definitions of the terms communication and writing and covers types of communication, inherent factors in communication, barriers to communication and general characteristics of good writing. There is also a detailed unit on the Logic of Communication, with good examples of errors in logic.
Other units include the characteristics of commercial style, the stages of business writing and a detailed description of paragraph development characteristics, types, and methods of exposition. Part Three offers the most noteworthy contributions to the teaching of business writing in Spanish. In addition to the stylistics of business letter writing this text introduces a wide spectrum of business communications.
The text provides two or three examples for each of these documents and explains their design, purpose and psychology. The explanations are clear, concise and fully exemplified. In the appendix there are exercises without answers that correspond to each unit within each chapter. Some of the exercises are grammatical, while others are content questions and others offer writing practice.
Overall, this book presents a wealth of information on business writing. Both professionals and advanced university-level students will benefit from its contributions to the field of commercial Spanish. Few languages so early in the learning sequence present the American learner with such a puzzle as does Spanish with ser and estar. Just at the time that teachers wish to gently induct students into the language, the problem of ser and estar looms, and must be dealt with in however simplified a way.
Later in the learning sequence ser and estar again and again return problematically. Many non-native teachers of Spanish are a little vague on the topic of ser and estar and have never mastered the most subtle and idiomatic uses of the two verbs. Native-speaking teachers may be no better off; while they possess a large store of expressions and uses of ser and estar , they may suffer from an inability to reduce these to generalizations that can be captured by the American students.
It is composed of eight chapters, the first four of which are grouped around the goal of understanding ser and estar , while the remaining four help students to master the two verbs. The authors correctly allude to the fact that often grammatical explanations of ser and estar are simply wrong as offered by teachers and textbooks, such as the common error of positing a distinction of permanence versus transitoriness between the two verbs.
Incorrect invocation of the notion of permanence produces errors such as Juan es siempre ocupado where the siempre leads a student to opt for the supposedly permanent ser. In contrast the Serranos offer a dichotomy of state versus nature , where even a permanent condition such as death remains a state. Put another way, the Serranos offer a dichotomy that they term whatness versus howness.
The Spanish speaker often finds the English lack of a distinction in the copula to be ambiguous, e. Teachers might do well to point this out to students. In parallel, it might be advisable to expose students to exercises which show that especially estar can be rendered in English by many more forms than just that copula -translations such as to look , to feel , to seem, become, etc.
The likely market for this book will be that of teachers and perhaps some graduate students and trainee teachers. If this is so, the book might have benefitted from a little pruning. For example, page 79 offers a description of the passive voice which merely states what would be known to most readers. La clase es celebrada , en el quinto piso.
This is very useful for instructors, but of limited value in explaining to students, since quite often students come across such uses long before they have studied the passive voice in Spanish. In general this book would be a useful purchase for teachers and student teachers, since it offers a truly large store of examples and uses of the two verbs. The text is very inexpensively priced and is of acceptable production quality, with only a very rare typo.
His is a varied world of irony, skepticism, and hypocrisy, overlaid with a diversity of children and adults who embody both innocence and human darkness. Above all, however, Pombo has been a creator of character at a time in novel writing when character has served a role secondary to technique or has been shattered into chaos by the postmodern exigencies of fragmentation and absence. Indeed, there is a repeated desire in Pombo's fiction to restore wholeness to characters -not the naive wholeness of realistic tradition, but rather a belief that fictional beings can be linked to human assertions fear, love, doubt, desire within a narrative scheme that is aware both of its own contingencies and those of its characters.
Although the young girl assumes an important role in the daily life of the two boys, and el Chino returns to live with his parents at the end of the year they are Spanish diplomats in Stockholm , the novel focuses on the common preoccupations and events of youthful transitions rather than on a single occurrence aimed at evoking dramatic poignancy. Yet Pombo carefully constructs his narrative so that Elke is never placed between the two friends as a symbol of destruction. Rather, she gains the friendship of both and is portayed at once as different and similar to the two boys.
She shares in their world of play and introduces them to new activities e. What is most remarkable about the year in the life of the children, however, is that nothing at all remarkable happens, The point, of course, is not that the materiality of life itself has changed in dramatic fashion, but that in the normal scheme of growing older, perceptions about what life means are compellingly tenuous. This world is often humorous and ironic, at times ingenuously inquisitive. Always, however, it is shaped by the perceptions of children and their desire to comprehend life, even control it, as it spins loose from their grasp and forces upon them the inevitable concessions to growing older.
University of Connecticut . Attracted to California's thriving art community, she briefly pursued an acting career in Hollywood and married a painter whose work took them to Mexico in the early s he died of smallpox soon after their arrival. Feeling more at home in Mexico than in the United States, Tina soon emerged as a popular figure among Mexican artists and intellectuals. However, her relations with Edward Weston, a successful American photographer, and her interests in left-wing politics would determine the course of her life.
Under the tutelage of Weston, Modotti gradually attained prominence as a professional photographer, preserving for posterity scenes of the Cristero Rebellion and images of Mexico's suffering poor, with whom she identified. At the same time she found herself under the influence of Communist Party organizers in the Mexican capital. The book begins in , when Mella, stalked by thugs working for the Cuban dictator Gerardo Machado, is assassinated on a thoroughfare while he and Modotti are returning to their apartment. The novel then flashes back to Modotti's earlier life in California, her marriage, and her move to Mexico City.
Poniatowska states in her Agradecimientos that she spent ten years of research on Modotti's life, including her interviews with Vittorio Vidali, an Italian communist who became Modotti's second husband. Vidali and Modotti met in Mexico and left for Europe in when Modotti was expelled from the country because of her communist activities. She had joined the Communist Party in , after which she had become increasingly militant.
They spent most of the following six years in Russia working for the Socorro Rojo Internacional, an agency that sent them, together and separately, on political missions to Germany, France, Austria, and Spain. Modotti's ability as a polyglot enhanced her standing with the Soviet bureaucracy and in was a deciding factor in her participation in the Spanish Civil War. She first served as a nurse in Madrid and then, when the Republicans suffered defeat after defeat, in other parts of the country.
With General Franco's triumph, Modotti and her husband returned to Mexico, where her altered appearance, brought about by ailing health and years of hardship, enabled her to conceal her identity. She died early New Year's Day, In addition, Poniatowska has managed to capture the vibrant political and intellectual ambience of the s and s, both in Mexico and Europe.
The text is replete with anecdotes about and cameo appearances by well-known painters, writers, and politicians. Thus, her novel includes far too many digressions from the principal subject at hand. The details of Trotsky's assassination in , for example, although scarcely related to Modotti's life at the time it occurred, are at least historically relevant and interesting, but other details are not.
The elimination of many obscure characters and episodes would have enhanced the artistic merits and dramatic impact of the book. One of Mexico's finest writers, Poniatowska has demonstrated once again that the nonfiction novel can be a viable art form. The adjective singular is frequently applied to Javier Tomeo, and his highly original sense of humor sets him apart from most of his contemporaries.
An extraordinarily prolific writer, Tomeo has developed a distinctive literary formula. His novels are customarily structured as a monologue or the narration of a dialogue between two individuals, one of whom attempts to dominate the other, as in El castillo de la carta cifrada , Amado monstruo , El cazador de leones , and El mayordomo miope His repertoire of themes is limited -loneliness, lack of communication, the absurdity of the human condition- and he reworks material almost obsessively, repeating situations, motifs, images, even quips. Monstrosity fascinates him, and a number of his characters exhibit some type of deformity.
There are relatively few women in Tomeo's fictive world. Those who do appear tend to be possessive  mothers, devouring wives, or sexually provocative creatures who, according to the male characters, give men good reason to distrust women. The latter are often the target of abuse and are deprived of direct access to language.
Their speech is reported indirectly and their thoughts interpreted by men, so that male voices and visions predominate. The former has supposedly written a novel whose protagonists are named Juan and Anita. Literature imitates life which imitates literature. Tomeo's Juan is attracted to women but terrified of them and convinced he cannot trust them.
Among them may be mentioned : Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, who was known as the tenth Muse of the age in which she lived; A. Plaza; J. Pesado; F. Rodriguez Galvan ; J. Segura; J. Perez Diaz; G. Prieto; F. Riviera y Rio, and J. Special attention is invited to the South American poems, they having been carefully selected from among tlie gems of over fifty of the leading authors who dwell in the beautiful realms of astral breezes and tropical flowers. At the close of this volume will be found a biographical diction- ary of all the poets quoted.
N Diego, C. Plaza ;J. Prieto; Isabel A. Prieto ; F. Riviera y Rio; J. Sartorio; Manuel M. San Dikc. I have placed at the head of mv work this verse of the illustrious Florentine poet, moved by a feeling of respect to his glorious memory, like the poor gentle- man of position, in reduced circumstances, who still preserves with religious affection the ancient manorial escutcheon on the portal of his lordly, but ruined and desolate home. My poem begins in the dark forest in which Dante supposes to have suddenly found himself at the beginning of middle age, and separated from the direct road.
His simple action passes in the place and in the period intervening from the time he found himself unexpectedly in the gloomy forest, until a panther attacks him intercepting his progress. Following the symbolism of Dante, although without the cer- tainty of having given the fit interpretation, I have represented in The Dark Forest that sad period of life — verging to old age — in which the illusions and hopes fall withered from the heart, as the dry leaves from the trees, destroyed by the autumn winds, and in which the vegetation of the soul, —permit me to use the metaphor, although I may sin as being bold — that is to say, the renewing of its lost affections and its dreamed felicity, is very difficult, if not quite impossible.
Dante, whose likeness I have tried to trace in these verses, — and approaching the nearest that is preserved of him, and which, if I mistake not, is the work of Domingo Michelino — was born in Florence, in the year , and was a descendant of an ancient Guelph family. From his youth, faithful to the party which his parents had embraced, he served his republic in magistries and 12 tup: dark forest.
The divisions of the Guelphs, and the vicissitudes of the land of their nativity, drove him to exile, near Ravena, where he died in He might have been able to return to his fath- erland, where already, as in all Italy, he was famous and admired, had he wished to lenrt himself to the conditions imposed upon him : the payment of a moderate fine, and the submission to va- rious religious ceremonies which involved a kind of retraction ; but Dante refused, saying that if to enter Florence, there was no other road, he would bid farewell forever to his native land.
In fact, rather than to accede to what was demanded of him, he preferred to wander to the end of his life through France and England, and principally througli diverse towns of Italy, learning through his own experience how bitter is the bread received from others, and how sad it is to climb the stairs of strangers.
Come sa dis! In the course of time Dante suffered in his political opinions. He began by being a Guelph and ended Ijy being a Ghibelline. Lord B3ron, in love in his youth with a maiden of his own age —never lest in Dante the character of the ideal and contemplative which was to lead him to austerity and to glory. Nine years after his first interview, i. Beatrice, feeling hurt by the suspicion of certain youthful levities attributed to her, refused to greet him one day as she was passing by him. This indifference produced such an intense grief in the heart of the poet that, fleeing from the people, he filled the earth with bitterest tears, and remained a long while as in a state of letharg -.
I did not relate all the incidents of Dante's intimate life, for they would not find room in the narrow limits of a note, and besides, being well known, they are not necessary fcr the understanding of my poem. Suffice it to say that timid and irresolute as he was, perhaps for the very power of his contained passion, he could never see Beatrice without being profoundly moved.
The hulies fouiid out his secret, and in- creased his confusion 1 y mischievous smiles and whisperinjj;. Thus years passed without producing any change whatever in the sentiments of Dante, until the death of Beatrice in the flo-wer of her age, on the 2nd of July, The grief of the bard was unbounded ; the city of Florence, robbed of whatever it contained of charm and splendor, seemed to him in mourning.
He wrote touching poems to the holy memory of Beatrice, in her praise and glorification, filled with the mystic and symbolic spirit which is one of the most characteristic strokes of his genius, until one day he had a marvelous vision, the details of which he passes over in silence, and of which it says in the " Vita Nuova, " he witnessed such things Uiat he determined to keep silence concerning every- thing a1 out that blessed soul unless he could speak in worthy terms. The story of these chaste and immortal affections, the allegoric sense of which has always given occasion for careful and profound interpretations, serves for a basis, as the reader will see, to my poem, "The Dark Forest," and singularh- to the.
Dante who, as previously stated, accompanies Virgil in his peregrination through the Inferno, and afterwards Stacio, a Christian poet who joins, and remains with them until their exit from Purgatory, has alwaj's present the purest image of Beatrice, on whose frequenth' invoked name the obstacles he encounters are smoothed over and disappear.
When in the twenty-seventh catito of the Purgatory he finds before him a wall of fire which impedes his progress, Dante draws back in fright, but Virgil says to him : "Consider, my. He feels himself suffocating by the heat of the sea of fire which. Gaspar Nunez de Arce. Descending down the steep declivity of time I found mj'self within a forest, wild, sublime, Among whose shades was heard the dry leaves' chime.
The elements were moved with an autumnal breeze Which woke the solitude and sighed among the trees, And carpeted my road with showers of russet leaves. I left the tracks of my ensanguined footj rints there — The marks of feet that wandered bleeding, torn and bare- Advancing fast between each anguish and each scare. Still onward, ever on, my footsteps were beguiled. And still the woods became more tortuous and wild. Desvanecido ya, ciego del todo Y acometido por las sombras, iba Tropezando do quier como un beodo. Hasta que al fin.
While passing where well nigh impervious thickets grow, Which drew from me low cries of anger and of woe. Not did the silent woods, nor j-et the murky sky, Nor e'en the sound that echoed from each mute outcry, Temper mj- pain intense or quell the rising sigh.
And lit upon the circle which in the grove held sway. As in the darkness of a cloudy summer's night There creeps about a livid scintillating light O'er grave and marsh where gasous fluids there unite. A most tenacious anguish did to my throat adhere Which rendered all my thoughts vertiginous and unclear, And made my hair to stand on end with mortal fear. Already weary, trembling, faint and blind to all, And overcome by darkness, gathering like a pall, I staggered slowly on, and scarce could help but fall, Until at last my strength I could no more retain, And to the ground I fell beneath a conquering pain, As falls the mighty oak before the hurricane.
De candorosas ilusiones lleno En tu infinita 3- pura trasparencia! No encuentra ya su abandonado nido? I but remember that 'twas in a gloomy shade, And when I woke, despairing of all human aid. With eyes and arms toward heaven in eagerness I prayed. I sought in Christian memory once more to gain The faith that once my adolescence did maintain. But to accomplish this endeavor proved in vain. O heaven, replete with true illusions, it is ye Whose light upon my innocence doth make to flee The darkness, in thy infinite, pure transparency!
O azure sky, magnificent, glorious and serene ; [lean The bright immortal home toward which the soul doth That it may roam thy bosom in celestial mien! To me how changed and dark thine aspect doth appear! Thy Is colored as the soul beholding its compeer! Why was it frightened when the foreign realm was scan'd, If, when repenting and aweary on that shore, It rose, and to the woods which saw its birth did soar. But its deserted nest it finds, alas! Suddenly between the liows there came a light, Without a rustle of the leaves to left or right.
Like gentle ray of moon upon a peaceful night. On his broad forhead was a laurel of pure gold ; A vesture, draped in red, about his form did fold, Both lending majesty to the figure firm and old. Advancing with that steady step he did reveal The visage of a man who yieldeth not his zeal To passion, nor the sense of danger doth he feel, But pierceth his superior sight through ambient brume As though his gaze could penetrate the darkest gloom And search the human conscience, though 'neath piles of [coom ; And see the sleepless incertitude the heart within. And even thoughts of guilt which may in it begin ; Likewise the dormant shame of hearts begrimed with sin.
And when I meditate respect doth still enhance As I behold his rigid and austere semblance, Quite shrunk through years of sorrow and of vigilance ; Then with my recollections I wish to animate. If not the noble image, the outlines yet create. Of that illustrious spirit which I so venerate.
La búsqueda de un sueño (A Dream Called Home Spanish edition)
With mouth repressed, and he to joy a stranger found. As if resolved to arrest the steps upon the ground To malediction just, and awful sobs profound. His nose was aquiline — at least appeared as such — His visage, clear and spare, did seem the soul to touch As point of sword the flesh, and may be feared as much. Pero al amargo trance te resuelva La sentencia fatal que en la vida Todos pasamos por la oscura selva.
Of our past faults which now our troubled souls redeem. Nor e'en in all the realm do timorous birdlets sing. Crujir tus huesos y chocar tus dientes. Como en presencia de su j uez el reo. Here man, coming to doubt his God, self damned doth [fall. With languid ecstacy, their warm and ardent kiss. Upon us turn their backs with haughtiness and disdain.
Encountering obstacles, and also craving food. And finding neither joy nor rest, and nothing good; "And leaving by the way the fleeting joys of earth, Like ancient warrior's relics about some Scottish firth, Or like fair jewels strown, of rare and precious worth. Though not enlight'ning yet not blinding him without Who yields the soul to its insatiable doubt, "And similar to the western sun, when fades his light, It doth no more spread out the beams of daj- so bright. But still impedes the darkness of the coming night.
And desolately drags his defunct soul through life. And through the rough declivity our road did plough. Before his steps the branches on the wooded plain Of giant trees did part as in the land Cocagne, And we passed on without more trouble or more pain. But soon again with wrath the boughs did intertwine Alike thick coat of mail; and one would say, in fine. That they at times did groan, and even woes divine; Or that from incult barrier, which behind us sealed, Like meshes crudely formed from Nature's mighty shield, There surged the fearful din of furious battle-field.
Nunca logrado y siempre perseguido! Tenaciously through life and death I search for thee, O thou, my ideal mistress that can never be! Del fango de la vida se levanta. Escala es de Jacob por donde sube Nuestro dolor, en busca de consuelo, A las altas esferas en que estuve. Es un gemido que remonta el vuelo A la excelsa region de la esperanza. Gives it joy or woes?
Or incorruptible and holy essence, pray. Of th' liberated spirit? To spheres on high where dwelt I 'yond the shores of Time. While his profound and troubled thoughts were backward And to more prosperous and happy days they fled, [led, Sad Dante Alhigieri deeply sighing said : ' ' Alas! Pudo unirnos con lazos tan estrechos En los castos albores de la vida? Though yet it was the pure and happy dawn of life? And wide its boundaries doth extend o'er all the mead?
Like that sweet fragrance which the virgin buds compre. So timid, silent, and so modest as was ours? Ella mi puro amor adivinaba. Como al panal acuden las abejas. Turbaban su quietud vagos acentos. And left me sore confused; so blind I could not see. Ah me! Confuso y sin valor retrocedia Diciendo : — [ Es pronto! I '11 return to-morrow! Bajo el influjo de mi suerte aciaga Caminaba al azar y sin concierto. Como loco infeliz que absorto vaga. I know not how it was I could withstand The terrible blow which such a trial did demand.
And all I wished or hoped for was for life to end ; " Because the soul, which of its treasures fates deprive, Into the dark abyss frenetically doth dive Where Doubt's dark shade abides, and where none can [survive. And soothed my sorrows with that view of Paradise. And was enveloped in her flowing robes entire ; Those robes which spotless were as snow on towering spire. From accident guarded by its consort's feathered breast, " ' Because, while in the home of glory, my sojourn Was sad, for thinking of thy woes my soul did burn With lamentations, and my peace would not return ; " 'And with compassion yielded to thy long Constance Which neither fate nor time, nor darkling storm's advance Could break, nor e'en the deep and silent tomb's distance.
Long, too long, thou hast repined! Two wings 't will have to rise to God: — thy faith and mine. And when thou falterest thine aid will come from me. Thy mind shall soar where human thought has never flown, ' ' ' And by an invisible tie united as thy wife, Thou the sword shalt be and I the shield through life To fight its fiercest battles and to quell its strife. Or the blind dread which man can never from him thrust, Which then was holding my feet, subjected, to the dust.
And I, in a mysterious struggle, mj- thoughts confined To things obscure, and thus confused, the reason blind, Did follow him along where tangled thickets wind. But of a sudden he exclaimed : "Blest shalt thou be O, holy illusion that dignifiest and setest free ; That beautifiest and elevatest such as we. And yet thro' all not die of anguish in exile. Si al hundirme en la miseria humana. But at each instant more forbidding seemed the wold And yet more rugged was the route among the mold, And still more difficult our pathway we behold.
Emerging suddenly from where the thistles rise That closed the entrance, 'yond which a gloomy cavern lies, I saw a huge ferocious panther whose fierce eyes. In that dense darkness which surrounded us, did dance Like coals of fire, and which anon my. With his tremendous voice rending the elements he. As if expressly there concealed in wait for me, Upon me, unawares, did spring with savage glee. And who with widely staring eyes behold their guilt. Without the constant glow, to mortals here unfurled.
And fertile ray of bright illusion 'round us curled. What would become of man, and what would be the world? Begone from me ye dark and gloomy shades of night Which in an evil hour the human conscience fright! And when I thus had spoke I saw the dawn gleam bright And thro' my window came the day in floods of light. Ya volvieron las sombras profundas A reinar otra vez en mi alma! Ya sollozan de nuevo las cuerdas Vibrantes del arpa! Leve musa ideal, esplendente aurora del alma! Primavera inmortal ; esperanza!
Te esperan las sombras Profundas de mi alma, Y te anhelan mis hondas tristezas. It was she — it was she, the pallid muse ; It was she, the fair, sweet Hope, Who paused for a moment at my side. Like a m 'stic heliotrope, And then through the narrow window she fled In the gleaming rays of light, And away through the fields of painted air She wings her uncertain flight.
How gloomy, how weary, how silent and sad Thou hast left me fugacious Hope ; The black clouds return to rule in my soul And again in the darkness I grope ; Again the vibrating strings of the harp Repeat their mournful lay, O, sweet delusive lark that flies Across my gloomy way. O, shining — O, gleaming dawn of my soul ; O, fragrant enchanting flower ; Thou butterfly with the golden wings, Return to my lonely bower ; For I wait in my sorrow, immortal Hope, And silently long for thee To hasten and scatter the shades of my night And return that vision to me.
Mar de la nada sin olas. In the unfathomable dome Where the shining stars do roam ; Where, tinted by the ether blue, Through an unknown avenue, Two adamantine planets keep Worlds of weary souls that weep Of bitter memories above. Unhappy in their lonely love ; For separate shall their wand'rings be Through infinite eternity : Though ever in each other's sight They are forbid to e'er unite.
In that inevitable hour In which our souls from earth shall fly Away to planets in the sky, Thou to one thy flight shalt take And I upon another wake ; While each upon a separate star Those souls forever parted are, And journey on their worlds of light But ne'er again shall they unite. The years shall cease ; the age be spent : The adamantine stars be rent. And all things time will then absterse For dust will be the universe ; Creation shall to shades resolve.
Knowing as I that in this earthly bourne All is sadness, bitterness and woe, And that there 's not a being whom we know That does not oer some lost illusion mourn ; Knowing that the joys for which we weep Are like unto a fraud, and nothing more, And all that 's sure, to which our minds may soar. Is what allures to our eternal sleep ; My voice its accents can no longer raise To wish thee other years amid the brine In which thou strugglest, or other days Of suflfering. But yet this voice of mine Congratulation gives and endless praise To thee whose honesty will ever shine. Enraptured in thy adoration, When thy thoughts shall be as mine, In my pure love and warm affection Where linked my soul was e'en with thine.
When thou confid'st in my devotion My heart will ever happy be ; My love be boundless as the ocean And none e'er admire but thee. His connitions are so extraordinary and varied; the prisms under which one can study him, so different ; the ob- serv'ations to which his writings give rise, so multiple ; his poetic endowments, so exalted ; his thoughts so delicate, yet, at the same time so deep, that one would require a space vastly greater than that of a simple sketch to study his work with the extension and detention which, on account of its merit, it deserves.
The times of discords have passed, and to-day remain only peo- ple who love one another as those in whose veins the same blood flows, and who have a common origin, cannot help. But this indefatigable eagerness which dominated him, in order to acquire knowledge and explore the sciences, was no obstacle for his exuberant imagination to direct itself also with a lofty flight to the fields of literature and poetry ; a field in which he was not slow in reaping glorious laurels, and in which he would also have attained al undant fruits if a sad and premature death had not torn him from his friends, whose charm he was, aiul from his fatherland of which, with justice, he was the pride and orna- ment.
Of an untiring activity, and powerful inventive faculty, he in- filtrated his spirit and his intellectual vigor everywhere, especially into the youths that surrounded him, and succeeded in founding the literary society of " Netzahualcoyolt," in memory of the cele- brated savant and poet of Texcoco, in the time of the conquest ; a society which became a real academy in Mexico, and which ex- ercised in all the land a most honorable literary influence. In this society he made his poems known. One of che first which then saw the light was the one dedicated to the " Philharmonic Society," at its in.
But then occurred to him what happens to all new authors who have not a powerful protector to represent their work, be it good or bad. But this glory, it may be said, came late to the inspired poet. No one believed, however, that that 3'oung man, so full of life and hope, whose poems were the charm and admiration of his contemporaries, was so soon to follow the author of his days to the tomb, but thus, unfortunately, it happened.
On the 6th of December, , the day that until then was a day of rest for Mexican learning, the poet laureate, who had just brilliantly finished the fourth year of Medicine, took his life, overwhelming with grief the heart of his sorrowing mother and those of his nu- merous friends. Whatever the determiuing motives may have been for such a sad occurrence, for us it is beyond doubt that the principal cause was that in Acuna there were two distinct beings ; two antithetical principles which, like the poles of a voltaic batterj', repelled each other, and which, like these, had to determine the destroying explosion of the poet's existence.
An idealist of temperament, a dreamer, a true poet ; his earnest desires, his aspirations, his eagerness, are all un- dermined and destroyed by his materialistic studies, determining in him that order of illusions which lead him, as if by the hand, to the borders of the grave. What we say is very clearly manifested in his highly beautiful composition, " Entonces y Hoy. The same contrast ; the same progressive despondency ; the same death of his illusions, can be noticed in comparing his two poems, " Esperanza," and "Nocturno.
En nombre del amor, ante tus puertas. We will leave to the readers the pleasure of perusing some of his best productions, but will not pass over in silence his magnificent com- position, "Ante un Cadaver," which is, without dispute, the best one of his poems in the book. In it Acuna shows himself, besides the original and most tender poet, the man of modern ideas, of civilizaiion and progresas, — although imbued with materialism, — and also in other pnesies that mind oppressed by sorrow, for which the body is nothing but " the prison which retains the soul in its sorrow," and which seems to carry with it the nostalgia of death.
It causes admiration as well as sorrow, considering what he could have accomplished during a laborious life in which, hardly entered, he had already conquered a crown of brilliant fame. The poetic significance of Manuel Acuna is very great. He represents better than any one the literary regeneration of Mexico after the war of intervention and of the empire. His activity ; his imagination ; his immense value, greatly influenced that juvenile generation which was to become the basis of the literary regenera" tion of his native land. Me dio un beso en la frente. Labitur ex oculis nuuc quoque gutta meis.
One day while j-et upon life's youthful strands My father, holding my head between his hands And weeping at the same time bitterly. Thus said : " Farewell, farewell, my son to thee! Henceforth another horizon shall arise And will present itself before thine eyes ; And thou shalt seek, and to the fountain flee Where to appease the thirst which burneth thee. Mas si el destino rudo Ha de darme el morir bajo tu techo. Impregnated were the breezes of the night With fragrance and murmurs wafting 'round me light And tranquil as the breath of a child that sings, Bearing, perchance, upon its feathery wings.
With tepid perfumes, which makes the heart rejoice The fleeting murmur and the loving voice Of mother's silent kiss upon my brow. Above the honored couch — deserted now. Farewell I cry! The fragments of the azure in which the blest Illusions of my happy childhood rest. Who knows if thou mine eyes again shall see? Who knows if death's farewell I send to thee?
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Saludan desde el fondo de sus tumbas Al recuerdo lejano. After waking from that supreme moment Of gloomy lethargy The night of absence unfolded Its impenetrable veil. Its starless shadows ; Its frosty atmosphere; — That odious blindness in which the absent one, Proscribed by love.
And thus from the hour-glass of my life Slipped the eternal hours Over my sad and dejected brow, Sounding as they spread in the distance Like a sweet strophe unfastened From the supernal harp of Hope ; Thus, when once in the moment In which the white flower of my delirium Unfolded its bud in the breezes ; When my dead faith trembled Under its funeral robes of affliction At seeing afloat, in the azure of the sky.
The spirit of my home over the real ; When the last hour of sorrow Was on the verge of striking for me, And the mournful music of my song Was changing into music of convocation,. My heart, like the faded flower Which opens at the smile of dawn, Awaiting the life of its rays, Also opened to fold its clasp Which was spread to receive the endearments Enclosing in the depth of its night [of love, The caresses of a corpse! Su mano me bendijo. Su pecho sollozaba. En el reloj terrible Donde cada dolor marca su instante.
Hora negra en que la urna consagrada Para envolverte,! On the immense clock Where each pain stamps its point of duration, Inflexible destiny Marked the vibrating cipher Of that impossible hour ; Sad hour in which the innermost sanctuary Of my dreams of glory Saw its altar abandoned ; Its day turned into a wax taper, And its worship into memories ; Gloomy hour in which the urn consecrated To enclose thee, O father, In the fragrant essence of affection. Was a dark tomb Where thou leavest only the remembrance To make its void the more infinite.
Father forgive, because so much I cherished That in the loftiness of my love I believed [thee In it to give thee a shield. Qt Forgive, because I struggle against a fate That could tear tne from thine arms. Over the honored cradle in which from child- The songs of night lulled me to sleep, [hood The blue sky floated, And always when I opened mine eyelids I found in that firmament two stars That smiled whene'er they saw me.
To-morrow when mine eyes I lift again toward the umbrageous space That fugaciously stirs above mj' cradle, Thou knowest, my father. That over that cradle there is a void ; That of those two stars I miss one. Thou succumb'st : — of the book of darkness I have not the knowledge or the key ; In the grave wherein thou slumberest I know not if there be room for love ; I know not if the sepulcher Can love life ; But in the dense obscurity that wraps My heart to sufi'er like a coward, I know there exists the germ of a spark Which at the remembrance trembles and glows ; I know that the sweetest of all names Is the name which I utter when I call to thee, And that, in the religion of my remembrances.
Thou art the god I love. A twilight advances Spreading over the transparent air The darkness of a night without dawn,. Father sleep : — my vibrating heart vSends thee its canticle and its farewell ; Towards thee it rises, and hovering Above the tombstone that seals Thy lonely grave, My love illuminates it, while over thee, and In the endless night of thy tomb, [above it, My spirit will be a star. Me espanta vuestra gloria resonando Entre ayes de dolor y entre lamentos.
Although it may be true your glory I admire, Yet me your glory but appalls, resounding Between the groans of anguish and of tears ; And not to you I sing whose laurels In blood were grown, And breathe the air of death ; Not unto you I sing, ye dreaded ones, Who frame the laws with the sword With no more right than that of might. Your names, exalted though they be, Yet quicken not the blood within my veins. The same my soul, when it desires to find The light of poetry. Seeks not its plentitude in the night.
Y al encontrar la llama indeficiente De la verdad sagrada, Mi pecho entonces se electriza y siente, Y de mi lira tosca y olvidada.
Era la sombra : entre su negro manto X'egetaban los hombres. Vagando entre las nieblas De la noche sin fin de la ignorancia. The beings, in the image of God, were not then The Adam of the first day, But serfs, by Tyranny tied to her Triumphal car with an angry hand ; Living mummies which, on leaving the world To return to the hollo wne.
Bequeathed to their. Thus centuries after centuries passed, Leaving in their infinite tracks in the distance Naught but the shadows and horrid monsters Wandering in obscurity Through the endless night of ignorance. But suddenly the light of thought Illuminated, vividly and radiantly, The firmament of holy Reason ; And God appeared, beautiful and great.
En vez de la cadena y del levita La figura grandiosa de Escobedo. Then it was when Knowledge rose Dispersing the shadows Which fled in confusion at her presence ; And then it was when Mexico saw In the accursed abode Of crime and fear. In place of the chain and levite, The grand figure of Escobedo.
Tremble not when remembering the history Of the place of iniquity Where the savage vulture of Ignorance Concealed its chicks and its nest ; Tremble not at the gloomy memory Of the unearthly dungeon Repeating the last lamentations Of the dying martyr. Already the den of crime is cleansed Of its foul stigma. And even infamy itself disappears Where the tracks of wisdom are imprinted : In place of the executioners And burning lead and poison, loo 1' m:m. Empezada por Cristo en el Calvario, Que redime y que canta en su santuario Los himnos del amor y la esperanza.
Sublime rendition, mighty mission Of him who suffers while soothing pain ; Of him who weeps and moans While drynig the tears of others ; Mission of charity and prosperity Begun by Christ on Calvary ; Mission that redeems, and sings in its sanctuary The hymns of love and hope. And if you long for the conquest Of the fadeless laurel of fame, Then raise your eyes to heaven Where there is One who sees and calls you. And think not of the steep cliffs, Nor of the pointed thorn That pierces the foot which touches it.
Relax not for a moment In your noble and heavenly career : Onward! For yet far distant Is the crown of roses which awaits you. The holy, the beloved Mother of those who fell, victors In their own fall. Was found among them, trembling and wounded By the greatest sorrow of sorrows. On her pale visage still sparkled A tear of her deepest grief ; At her side arose. The last patriot already being vanquished. When they saw her sightless and staring eyes The Spaniards believed her dead, And between the unsteady flames of the Fire they threw her into the grave with her sons.
Sealed their defeat with their death ; It is I, the Complaint to whom no one listens, And the tears which no one heeds. My faith has told me that thy strength is mighty. That thy courage is great, and I come to see thee ; That in the eternal and trying patience With which for centuries unceasingly I battle, I know that thou wilt give me what I find not : — My mother who is here because I feel her presence.
It was at this hour, and on a day Like this, on which we praise his memory.
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When the old man spoke. Tus hijos ya no gimen Como antes al recuerdo de tu ausencia Ni cadenas hay ya que los lastimen. IO7 At this hour it was when the stone Rolled into pieces which sealed that tomb Where thou, like Christ, wast dead, Only upon the third day to arise. At that hour it was when the door Of thy home opened, and that saw thee in its bosom. With a supreme dread in its joy Lest thy apparition was not real.
And since that moment, and since that hour, Tranquil and without fears in thy heart, Thy dream is sheltered under a roof Where naught but pleasure weeps. No more thy sons will sigh, As formerly, at the remembrance of thy absence ; Nor are there chains to wound them now. On their fertile fields there flows no more The blood of slaughter and strife ; And from peace, among gentle joys, Under a shadowless and cloudless sky.
The flowers will not be ashamed to bloom Nor the birds ashamed to sing. Thou art great, and upon thy path A future of glory opens before thee With the sweet promise of history That thy sun will never set. Tread that path, and follow With the experience of thy lesson of the past ; Work and struggle until the task is finished Which thou hast commenced on thy return to ex- For yet in thy prisons something remains, [istence. Something which flight cannot recover, And something of Spain in thy conscience. Que no es con sangre como el siglo quiere Que el pueblo aprenda las lecciones tuyas ; Que el siglo quiere que en lugar de templos Le des escuelas y le des ejemplos, Le des un techo y bajo del lo instruyas.
IO9 I come to tell thee that it is necessary To kill that remembrance of the kings Which, concealed behind the confessional, Seeks to give thee other laws than thy laws ; That God exists not there where thy sons Disown thy love and thine affections ; That it is not he who pardons at the scaffold ; That it is not he of the altar and of the prayers ; That God is He who dwells in thy cabins ; That God is He who dwells in thy workshops, And who rises, present and incarnate.
There, where without hatred of duties, [bread. That thou shalt give it a roof and under it instruc- Thus it is that on thy brow Thou wilt be able at last to place the crown Which the future has destined for thee. He who knows thy heart, who divines In thee the holy mother of progress, And who to-day, before the remembrance of that In which one of her kisses was the aurora [hour Which sprang from the night through the darkness, Whilst the people weep in rapture, Comes to caress thee with another kiss.
And so! Already here thou art, after the impious struggle In which at last thou didst succeed in breaking The prison that chained thee to sorrow. Ex- amples of this kind are not infre juent in Spanish poetry. La madre es solo el molde en que tomamos Nuestra forma, la forma pasajera Con que la ingrata vida pasamos. II3 The light of thine eyes no more exists ; Thy vital organism inertly reposes And refuses to fulfil its office. But no! For neither is nothingness the point at which we Or naught the point at which we die.
For molded after our parent We travel through this ungreatful world In our transitory shape. Neither is this the first shape That clothes our being, nor Will it be its last when it dies. Now thou art lifeless : but a short time And thou wilt return to earth and its bosom Which is life's universal focus. Meanwhile the fissures of thy grave Will see the larva converted into a butterfly, Rising from its open depth, Which, in its endeavors of uncertain flight, Will go to the unhappy couch of thy dear ones To bear them thy greetings of the dead.
And in the midst of those interior changes Thy craneum, filled with a new life. Instead of thoughts will yield flowers, In the calyx of which will shine concealed, Perhaps, the tear with which thy loved one Accompanied the farewell of thy departure. The tomb is the end of the journey, For in the tomb is where the light of our Imprisoned spirit remains dead ; But in the abode, at whose door Our breath dies out, there is another breath That wakes us again to life.
Cambia de formas ; pero nunca muere. But there, where the mind is exhausted And the organism perishes, right there [forth. One yields to the history of justice A name, carelesslj- and indifferently, Whether that name become eternal or die. He gathers only the clay, And changing the forms and the object He charges himself that it live eternally. The tomb keeps only a skeleton. But life, in its funeral vault, Proceeds to nourish itself in secret ; For at the end of this transitory existence, To which our anxiety so much adheres.
Matter, immortal as glory, Changes in forms, but never can die. There were three, but England Again launched herself into the waves, And the Spanish vessels Sailed again to this land. Only France exclaimed : "Let there be war! She rose at once to establish The right of the stronger.
The dispute embodied in its obligation The redemption of thy affront. The flames of their cannons Broke forth in a yellow light, And the world beheld thy legions Entering the fierce combat, Only carrying for a shield The shield of their hearts. In thy hand arose the sword And in thy conscience the design. IV Since in the orient shone The light of that eternal sun Whose pure and delicate ray Approaches to kiss thy brow, Thy independent banner Floated on the mountains While the hostile armies Raised their flag in anger Which was waving haughtily With the splendor of their exploits.
V And the hour arrived, and the sky. Clouded and darkened. Disappeared, concealed As in the folds of a curtain. Death spread his wings Over the frightened land, And between the terrified P'renchman And the furious Mexican, Arose the mighty war-cry Shaking the earth.
VII i Tres veces! Vio asomar sobre otro cielo Y en otro mundo la gloria. Gave thee a soldier in every man And a hero in every soldier. VII Three times! And gazed upon her banner, Stained and gory. She saw the illusions Of her victory lost, And in spite of her strife. And in spite of her eagerness. She saw glory dawning In another heaven and in another world. VIII That which, in the unsteady mist That floated over the country, And in the vapor which rose Beneath the path of the breeze, Was for thy innocent heart Its most beautiful smile ; Its most eloquent song To sing on thy journey, And its most beautiful crown To place on thy brow.
La era noble y duradera De la gloria y del progreso, Que bajan hoy, como un beso De amor, sobre tu bandera. La que en la dicha infinita Con que en tu suelo la clava. Since then, my native land. Thou hast entered a new era, The noble and lasting era Of fame and progress Which descends to-day, like a kiss Of love, upon thy standard. X Over that blessed banner Which to-day the people, Who in turn are stirred in their affections, Come to cover with flowers. And who, in the boundless happiness With which they plant it in the soil, Swear to thee, gallant and brave.
As once before the Frenchman, Sooner than see thee a slave, My native land, for thee I die. I Pues bien! I Well, then, I am compelled to say that I adore thee ; To tell thee that I love thee with all my heart ; That there is much I suffer, and that much I weep ; That more I can not bear, [thee, and at the cry in which I implore I entreat thee and speak in the name of my lost illusions. II I want you to know that already many days Have I been ill and pallid from so much lost sleep ; That all my hopes have already died ; That my nights are dark — so black and gloomy That I know not even where the future is fled.
IV I understand thy kisses are never to be mine ; I understand that in thine eyes I ne'er shall see myself; And I love thee, and in my mad and ardent deliriums I bless thy frowns ; I admire thy indifference. And instead of loving thee less I worship thee much more. V At times I think of giving thee my eternal farewell ; To blot thee from my memory and drown thee in my passion ; But if all be in vain, And my soul forget thee not, What wilt thou that I do, part of my life, What wilt thou that I do with this — my heart?
The sun of the morning behind the belfry, The torches emitting sparks, the incensory smoking, And there, open in the distance, the door of my home. VII How beautiful it would have been to live beneath that roof, We two united always, and always loving each other ; Thou alway enamored ; I always contented ; We two a soul in one ; we two a single heart ; And between thee and me, my mother like a god.
VIII Imagine thou how beautiful the hours of such a life! How sweet and beautiful the journey through such a land! And I dreamed of that, my holy betrothed, And when upon it delirating with my trembling heart, I thought to be good for thee, and for thee only. X Esa era mi esperanza. I33 IX Well knows God that this was my most beautiful dream ; My anxiety and my hope ; my happiness and my joy. Well knows God that in nothing did I abridge my diligence, But to love thee much within the smiling home That wrapped me in its kisses when it saw my birth.