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It seeks to provide practitioners, including government officials, police, municipal planners and members of civic groups, especially in low- and middle-income countries, with a basic conceptual grounding in democratic policing, and guidelines on good practices so that they can successfully undertake democratic policing in the urban contexts in which they operate.
The main issues addressed here are the dimensions of urban crime problems in the growing cities of low- and middle-income countries and how collaboration between urban planners, civil society, government officials and different types of police can help to solve those problems. Available from www. I, sect.
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It also addresses broader principles of managing urban space to control crime and strategies for evaluating crime control programmes. The overall objective of the Handbook is therefore to outline the new, innovative techniques and to explain how they have been applied to address crime problems in low- and middle-income countries. The various programmes, policies and approaches described here can provide law enforcement policymakers, front-line officers, urban planners and other city authorities as well as civil society organizations with basic information about an array of strategies and good governance practices to control crime in rapidly growing cities in low- and middle-income countries.
The control and management of urban space has been a driving force in the historic emergence and development of urban policing strategies. What makes policing urban space different from other types of policing and what specific challenges do governments face in policing those areas? Within the broader context of United Nations recommendations on crime prevention and the management of human settlements, the Handbook outlines contemporary understandings of policing in urban areas and how police and State officials, especially those at the municipal level, can work together to develop crime prevention strategies.
Key terms Megacities. Extremely large urban areas with populations usually in excess of 10 million inhabitants. A fusion of multiple cities into one single interconnected urban area. Low-income countries. Lower-middle income countries. Upper-middle income countries. High-income countries. Urban space. Densely populated land area subject to varying uses.
Definitions of urban space may vary from country to country, based on the laws in different jurisdictions. Europe, North America and Latin America became predominantly urban in the mid-twentieth century, and over the next 40 years the majority of the populations of Asia and Africa will also come to live in cities. Urban spaces are nodes of high population density, at the core of which sit one or more cities.
Diverse populations may live in close proximity to each other, at times contributing to inter-group and cross-class tensions. Housing and areas of commercial activity are often located near each other in vertical spaces with limited outside access. High population density places substantial demands on transportation corridors but also opens up the possibility of developing mass transit systems to quickly and efficiently move populations between different parts of the urban area.
Cities are sites of substantial commerce and economic competition that can contribute to greater economic and social opportunities as well as to crime and inter-group tensions. High population density creates a market for mass spectacles, such as sporting events and cultural presentations, which are difficult to accommodate in non-urban areas. Since there is a high demand for common space in those places, urban areas often set aside designated public areas such as markets or parks for leisure activities and economic transactions.
In many societies, public space in the form of sidewalks, streets, market areas and parks is informally privatized to support economic activity. Finally, a dense population also creates neighbourhoods that define the lives of many urban inhabitants. Such urban environments contribute to different types of policing challenges. The high level of inequality present in many urban environments creates competition and can contribute to collective violence. Intensive commerce and trade can also contribute to crime problems in urban areas. The presence of banks and other sites for securing cash and valuables can lead to large- and small-scale robberies.
In addition, the existence of a substantial financial and commercial infrastructure makes urban areas ideal places in which to commercialize illegal goods ranging from controlled narcotics and illegal arms to stolen merchandise. The presence of ample road networks and port facilities can turn many urban areas into trans-shipment points for contraband. Global Report on Human Settlements , pp. Large nodes of desperation and poverty can generate conditions that support drug abuse and trafficking in persons. High population concentrations can also contribute to large-scale demonstrations and political violence.
Urban areas can be contrasted to suburban and rural areas, which have considerably less population density and generally a lower concentration of economic activity. While in urban areas there is often a comparatively extensive police presence, police in the countryside may not be able to reach crime scenes quickly and may not be able to establish a regular presence. Residents of such areas may find that they have to rely on their own resources for security.
A low population density similarly means that individuals have less constant contact with one another and there is often less immediate competition for access to space for conducting business and for housing. While this hardly means an absence of conflict, the dynamics of rural crime and violence often necessitate different police practices. The Handbook draws specific attention to the role of women in public spaces and to efforts to create secure environments for women and girls in the urban space in which they live and work.
To date, the vast amount of research and study on policing has been conducted in high-income countries, especially in Europe and North America. There is, however, a growing literature on crime and policing in other countries, especially those that have experienced substantial problems with crime over the past generation, such as Brazil, Colombia and South Africa.
As discussed in the sections above, urban areas in low- and middle-income countries share a number of characteristics. Cities in wealthy countries, however, differ in substantial ways from such urban areas. Cities in high-income countries today usually have fixed patterns of development that have been in place for a substantial period of time. The older, unplanned areas of such cities have often either been destroyed or restructured in order to facilitate economic activity as well as State and social control;17 however, this has frequently resulted in the loss of valuable social fabric and pre-industrial architecture.
The vast majority of governments in the urban areas in high-income countries have developed ordered plans for urban expansion into suburban and rural areas that include different forms of transportation to bring the population into the urban centre. Neighbourhoods are generally regularized, follow an official street plan and have regularized city services. In general, cities in such countries are smaller than those in developing regions and, in many cases, have reached a point where population growth is very slow.
Today, 12 of the 15 largest urban areas in the world are in low- and middle-income countries. Cities are growing much more rapidly in less well-off regions of the planet; by , 21 of the 30 largest urban areas in the world will be in developing countries. Table 1. City populations and projected rate of growtha Estimated population thousands Country. These urban areas face significant challenges in governance that do not exist in most high-income countries today. At the most basic level, megacities in low- and middleincome countries are growing at high rates that are well beyond the capacity of many Governments to regulate.
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The problems associated with this are compounded by a lack of adequate Government resources for housing and the resulting emergence of irregular settlements that have informal street patterns, that are unmapped and that are often unfamiliar to outsiders and public officials. Transportation systems that were planned for much smaller cities or designed to reach only the wealthier areas of the city become wholly inadequate to meet the needs of large portions of the population, causing many to turn to informally organized and unregulated means of transportation.
In cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America, insufficient formal sector employment opportunities drive many into informal work. Workers in the informal sector often find themselves exposed to a higher level of risk for crime, violence and harassment. For example, as a result of the itinerant nature of their work, market sellers working in unregulated spaces are more prone to being robbed or subjected to extortion at the hands of criminals or State officials.
Also, the lack of regulation of informal markets often causes workers in the informal sector to turn to criminals for protection.
spectator violence in stadiums problem oriented guides for police book 54 Manual
Sociocultural norms can act as powerful systems of governance, in particular when there is a lack of law enforcement. There are many other challenges facing governments and police forces in large cities in low- and middle-income countries. The governments and police forces in such cities are less familiar with, and have less access to, much of the population and the urban areas than do police forces in wealthier countries. The resulting provision of informal services substantially transforms the system of governance from that which is expected in cities in high-income countries.
On one level, local administrations often have limited knowledge about the extent of a particular urban structure. In some cases, there are no comprehensive street maps and it may seem impossible to actually draw such maps or for the city to acquire a thorough knowledge of the urban terrain.
Many megacities comprise a series of municipalities and suburban areas that have grown into one large urban zone. This can create substantial difficulties in creating solutions for the whole region since the area will comprise several local governments, perhaps with divergent political directions and different needs and resource levels. Despite such differences, the areas may share related security challenges but be unable to work together to solve them. Finally, these cities may face unconstrained growth and expansion, which would tax their ability to cope with geographic, structural and geological challenges.
In some cases, police must deal with the challenges posed by policing a city where much of the population lives, by necessity, outside the law. In such situations, it is particularly important that police and municipal officials find ways of building relations with the inhabitants of the city. At times, traditional policing techniques, such as conducting patrols by car or on foot, are inadequate for the situations in which officers find themselves as they address the concerns of communities of squatters or areas dominated by vigilantes or gangs.
High levels of urban growth and inadequate services coupled with recent political transitions sometimes lead to rising crime rates and calls from various groups for more repressive policing. All too often beleaguered police fall back on repressive policing strategies to allay demands from political leaders or the population. Repressive efforts further corrode law enforcement, making it harder for police to enforce the law in the future.
The problems are exacerbated by the authoritarian and militarized policing legacies of earlier political regimes and conflicts. Strategies and habits acquired under different systems, however, also remain in place. While repressive policing may have had its place in a more generally authoritarian political system that regularly trampled the rights of citizens and focused on repressing dissent more than on controlling crime, it often damages both efforts at policing and effective political leadership in more open systems.
Building links between police and other government institutions is critical to developing new and innovative strategies of crime control. Such links are needed to incorporate security concerns into wider governance efforts. They also enable police and government officials to build effective relationships with the population in order to better guarantee security and ensure both order and respect for the rights of citizens. Jefferson and Steffen Jensen, eds. London, Routledge, ; on Brazil see Anthony W. Kingstone and Timothy J. Power, eds. Levels and types of policing The institutional structure of police forces varies greatly.
In some countries, such as the United States and Mexico, municipalities retain a substantial amount of control over many public safety issues. In countries such as Ireland and Nigeria, a single national force consolidates most policing activities. In between, there are a variety of alternatives. In France and Spain, for example, policing in rural areas is separated from policing in urban areas. In Brazil and Germany, investigative forces controlled at the State level are split into uniformed police who take on first-responder and preventative roles and a plain clothes force that conducts investigations.
Many countries also entrust the investigation of certain federal or national crimes to a separate force, such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the United States. Policing functions at the national or federal level may be divided among a variety of forces that take care of such issues as border security, investigations and national security matters. These forces may undertake a number of preventative and guard activities on behalf of municipal governments when the control of traditional policing activities is delegated to national or regional governments.
Brazil and Burkina Faso offer examples of this type of strategy. Such forces, which are often unarmed, vary greatly across the world in terms of their structure and roles. They have different and, at times, more limited competencies than the regular police forces as defined by national and subnational laws. Nevertheless, they offer an important opportunity for municipal public safety policy innovation, can play important preventative roles and may provide a critical entity through which local governments can effectively engage with the State or national public safety apparatuses.
Their different reporting lines may enable them to play a critical role in helping to build security into city planning work. They provide an outlet for mayors and other city leaders, who are often in charge of urban planning and management, to control some security issues and to incorporate the views of security officials into local policy planning. In understanding urban policing, government officials must consider the different types of forces that exist within their national, regional and municipal contexts. Building effective urban policing involves understanding the contributions that the different types of forces can make and incorporating the insights of the leaders of the different institutions into policing policy.
In using such strategies, police and other public security officials seek to build relations with the population in an effort to effectively transform urban space and State-society relations to control and prevent crime. The strategies have been used with varying levels of success in different regions.
Some of the successes are outlined in the following chapters. Good urban policing is an ongoing task based on the fusion of local knowledge with effective policies that have been tested in other areas. Effective policing involves not just implementing policies but developing local resource streams, coalitions, knowledge and skills to maintain the policies in the long term. Solving security problems involves bringing together police, local government officials, the private sector and neighbourhood civic actors. The Handbook stresses that while urban areas in low- and middle-income countries have much in common with regard to policing, there are also important regional differences that need to be taken into consideration.
Each region has its own unique history and challenges to effective policing. On the one hand, in Latin America, for example, the legacies of authoritarian regimes are at times a significant impediment to effective policing. On the other hand, in many parts of Asia, Africa and the Caribbean, countries must deal with the legacy of colonial policing structures. In addition, different regions face substantially different criminological problems.
For example, the international cocaine trade plays a major role in violence in many countries in the Americas. In Africa, displacements associated with economic crises and civil wars are core factors contributing to disorder in the region.
Africa also has to deal with the challenge of having historically weak States and extremely well-organized and embedded non-State actors with which the police often needs to engage in order to control crime. While the Handbook outlines major strategies police have used effectively to combat crime, it is important that such efforts be applied to local contexts, which often vary considerably according to the city, country or region.
This broad outline of crime problems in different regions provides only the most general background to the types of challenges that cities in different regions face. Urban crime problems in some parts of Africa may be driven by long-term conflictrelated issues, but at the city level governments will find themselves specifically concerned with why assaults on residents or home invasions, at times unrelated to wider conflict, are rising.
Understanding such problems in particular cities will generally include examining wider geopolitical problems that drive crime in the context of city-specific problems and the range of options available to police to control the problems. Thus, West African cities may face wider problems as a result of demobilized combatants, the easy availability of weapons or the migration of refugees from conflict areas.
As a result, cities will have to solve the problems facing them with the tools available but, at the same time, with an awareness of the wider geopolitical challenges involved. Most of the strategies outlined in the Handbook were originally intended for high-income countries in Europe and North America and while they may inspire action and be appropriate to solving problems in many middle- and low-income cities, they must be adapted to the specific conditions and sociocultural contexts of those cities.
Law enforcement officials, of course, must also consider specific solutions to local problems based on local political and social practices as well as on available economic resources. Section III of the Guidelines sets out eight basic principles underlying the development of crime prevention strategies, as follows: Government leadership 7. All levels of government should play a leadership role in developing effective and humane crime prevention strategies and in creating and maintaining institutional frameworks for their implementation and review.
Socio-economic development and inclusion 8. Crime prevention considerations should be integrated into all relevant social and economic policies and programmes, including those addressing employment, education, health, housing and urban planning, poverty, social marginalization and exclusion. Particular emphasis should be placed on communities, families, children and youth at risk. This includes partnerships working across ministries and between authorities, community organizations, non-governmental organizations, the business sector and private citizens. Crime prevention requires adequate resources, including funding for structures and activities, in order to be sustained.
There should be clear accountability for funding, implementation and evaluation and for the achievement of planned results. Knowledge base Crime prevention strategies, policies, programmes and actions should be based on a broad, multidisciplinary foundation of knowledge about crime problems, their multiple causes and promising and proven practices.
The rule of law and those human rights which are recognized in international instruments to which Member States are parties must be respected in all aspects of crime prevention. A culture of lawfulness should be actively promoted in crime prevention. Interdependency National crime prevention diagnoses and strategies should, where appropriate, take account of links between local criminal problems and international organized crime.
Differentiation Crime prevention strategies should, when appropriate, pay due regard to the different needs of men and women and consider the special needs of vulnerable members of society. The United Nations does not support or advise repressive military-oriented policing efforts. The provision of urban security should follow the basic principles of the rule of law and good governance.
Efforts to provide security to citizens should focus on prevention, capacity-building and collaboration between Governments and law enforcement agencies. Civil society groups have important roles to play in crime prevention. Guidelines suggested in the Handbook should be followed within the broader constraints of national law, and crime prevention programmes should have a focus on the well-being of young persons. The Handbook seeks to support efforts to build comprehensive prevention plans at different levels of government involving different sectors of the State and society to address the concerns of various groups.
While it seeks to provide substantial insights. States should work together to pool knowledge to respond to the increasing capacity of perpetrators. The Handbook focuses on primary crime prevention. Nevertheless, public officials should be aware of strategies to prevent recidivism and address issues concerning incarceration and the reintegration of convicts. Actors and stakeholders The Handbook begins with the premise of a broad and inclusive set of stakeholders involved in improving security in cities. Addressing the issue of security in contemporary cities necessitates looking beyond the role of the police in day-to-day public safety issues to the participation of a range of other managers, including city planners, school officials and public health analysts.
Effective efforts to improve public safety and security incorporate local knowledge of problems and aim to involve community members At heart, security involves citizens taking ownership of their own safety, ensuring general agreement about community standards and active work between police and community residents to enforce the law.
Architects, designers, landscapers, building and park managers and engineers also play important roles in building and maintaining urban spaces to ensure safety. The involvement of these different actors in efforts to guarantee security transforms the role of police in public safety. Beyond serving as law enforcers and strategists, police serve as experts in building and improving community safety.
Police play their traditional roles in protecting citizens but also work to share security knowledge and facilitate citizen efforts to improve security. Box 1. Key lessons drawn from chapter I "" Urban areas in low- and middle-income countries face significant security challenges, including: -.
Overcrowding and infrastructural issues that contribute to crime issues Rapid urban growth Lack of resources Lack of trust. Conclusion Chapter I outlines the basic challenges of policing in urban spaces and sets the stage for discussing the role of police in cities. Governments must find ways to police such areas effectively, based on reliable strategies and experiences at the local level.
Chapter II addresses an array of issues related to policing in urban areas, including a range of different policing strategies applicable to the complex challenges facing those areas. Later chapters address policing in specific types of urban spaces and examine successful strategies in policing those spaces as well as successful reform efforts in an array of countries. Developing effective urban policing strategies is a complex and ongoing process that involves a close understanding of the specific problems that a locality faces as well as the application of relevant policies to address those problems.
Over time, police must ensure consistent implementation and be aware of the need to change policies in reaction to evolving criminal markets, organizations and strategies. A data-driven administrative innovation in New York City policing in which local police officers use geocoded data to develop responses to criminal activity in their areas of responsibility and which higher-ranking commanders use to evaluate and hold lower-ranking commanders and police accountable for crime rate changes in their areas of responsibility. Community-oriented policing. A policing strategy focused on decentralizing policing responsibility in order to enable local commanders and front-line officers to work in conjunction with neighbourhood populations on developing and implementing policing strategies.
Problem-oriented policing. A policing strategy that focuses on using evidence, research and community contacts to develop strategies to prevent crime and solve crime problems rather than focusing on responding to specific incidents after a crime has occurred. Intelligence-led policing. A policing strategy that focuses on accumulating detailed information about criminal activities in order to focus enforcement and patrol efforts on disrupting these. An acronym describing a process within the problem-oriented policing model that focuses on four problem-solving components: scanning, analysis, response and assessment.
Incident-based policing strategies. Strategies that focus on a regular police presence in well-off neighbourhoods and business districts and an intermittent police presence in other neighbourhoods. The streets on the northern three quarters of the island follow a consistent north-south, east-west pattern. The downtown quarter has a less consistent grid, although the streets are well-ordered, long-established and mapped.
While police face many challenges in dealing with the variety of criminal activities that occur in parts of the island, they know where addresses are and have little trouble in getting to those places rapidly. These conditions are dramatically different from those faced by police trying to work in cities in many low- and middle-income countries. Consistent street patterns exist in limited areas and in many regions irregular urban settlements may expand much more rapidly than local governments can map them. Police working in these cities may not know where a specific address is and, for a variety of structural and organizational reasons, may not be able to gain access to those places in a timely fashion.
Streets may be poorly lit, homes may not have a formal address, maps may not exist and criminal organizations may limit the ability of police to enter parts of the city. At times, therefore, the crime prevention strategies implemented in low- and middleincome countries will differ from those used in wealthier countries. Rapid and irregular urban expansion has created entire regions within cities that might not be mapped and that follow complex and often disordered street patterns.
Rapid construction projects can close off previously passable streets, and create unstable buildings that may collapse and change the layout of the area. Natural and man-made disasters, such as floods and mudslides, can destroy entire neighbourhoods and reorder urban space. In addition, infrastructure may be of poor quality.
The narrowness of streets and closeness of buildings may also make it hard for police to tactically appraise areas and may limit the ability of strategic decision makers to apply policies effectively. Operating in such areas is especially difficult since there are usually no accurate addresses or ways for police to access them without substantial local cooperation. Usually, the criminals operating in them will be more familiar with the areas and will have stronger personal relationships with individuals in the area than will the police seeking to control criminal activity.
In addition, if the government is not effective in maintaining high-quality infrastructure, it will also generally not have an accurate picture of criminal activities in a specific area. The density of urban space and the variety of criminal activities that might occur in a specific area make tracking crime difficult.
In situations where governments have trouble keeping up with the structure of neighbourhoods, they will have greater problems knowing where and at what rate crimes occur. All of this makes developing effective crime control strategies difficult, especially in the neighbourhoods most in need of better crime control. Police also often face the problem of having a poor relationship with local inhabitants. Legacies of authoritarianism, colonialism and conflict have often created substantial rifts between the population and the police. The result is a reluctance on the part of individuals who might be able to help the police to provide critical information essential to local crime control.
Police may not be able to quickly find a house where illegal activities are occurring. Moreover, it may be difficult to implement collaborative. These situations have the effect of creating a negative dynamic in policecommunity relations, in which frustrated police come to increasingly resent residents and refuse to work with them to control criminal activity and vice versa. Problems in working with the population are exacerbated by the presence of active criminal organizations that effectively adapt to police practices over time.
The arrival of a repressive police presence will often result in arrests and the seizure of contraband but, without substantial innovation on the part of police or effective work with citizens to gather intelligence, criminal groups will tend to learn from these actions and adapt their strategies more quickly than police are able to respond. Planned communities also create challenges for police.
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Police increasingly face substantial challenges in managing urban space within gated communities. The privatization of space and the difficulty police face in gaining access to private space can make law enforcement particularly challenging. Without direct access to certain parts of the city, police may depend on the assistance of private security forces. Private security guards and firms may abuse the law and crime suspects in the areas for which they have responsibility. Such groups can pose significant challenges to police.
On the one hand, evidence from across Latin America suggests that these groups are often at odds with police and engage in a variety of activities that contribute to a deterioration of the rule of law in major cities. Such groups can become involved in acts of communal violence in regions of Asia and Africa. On the other hand, police, especially in Africa, have found themselves in situations where it may make tactical sense to develop ongoing relation ships with these groups. London, Frank Cass, T , pp. One success in this area has been the development of ties between government agents and traditional leaders in southern Sudan.
Another challenge police face in maintaining order in urban areas is a lack of consistent and regular urban transportation. Fleets of irregular buses and other forms of transportation clog roads and create opportunities for criminal activity. Disordered roads generate significant challenges for police by interfering with their arrival at crime scenes. In the poorest countries, police may also depend on public and informal modes of transport to reach crime scenes. Finally, the existence of irregular and illegal transportation services can also provide an opportunity for organized criminal groups.
A final consideration facing police in urban areas in low- and middle-income countries is the underlying question of poverty and inequality. Police are often called on by government officials to resolve serious problems in portions of the population woefully underserved by the market economy and the State alike. In environments of high poverty and desperation, as well as in situations where the middle and upper classes feel threatened by the poor, police are expected to maintain order. A lack of trust among poorer populations and the embracing by such populations of alternative security mechanisms, including local informal conflict resolution mechanisms and mob justice, compound the difficulties.
The result is that the police are often expected to do too much. Rather than just enforcing the law, police are expected to provide social services and stand in more broadly for the State as a whole in crisis situations. Police are then often blamed by the population for any number of problems and are also fatigued by the substantial demands put on them by State officials. Challenges and responses The array and depth of problems described above offer a perspective on why crimerelated problems in cities in low- and middle-income countries are challenging.
How can the police work to resolve the problems? Section C outlines strategies that police can consider in efforts to control crime and violence. The section begins with a critique of traditional incident-oriented policing and then examines alternative strategies for controlling crime, such as problem-oriented policing and community policing. Confronting substantial problems with criminal activities and suffering from the legacies of authoritarianism, colonialism and conflict, many police forces in lowand middle-income countries rely on incident-based policing strategies that focus on a regular police presence in well-off neighbourhoods and business districts and an intermittent police presence in other neighbourhoods.
In general, incident-oriented policing operates within the broad framework of the law, but when it is applied to less well-off populations, police often overstep the law. The investigations and court systems necessary to support such policing are typically absent. Incident-oriented policing, when led by underpaid and under-trained law enforcement officers, tends to fail, resulting in frustration among both the general population and public officials and leading to calls for improved policing.
Police may also promote such an argument as a way of shifting the blame for their failings onto another institution. The results are increased calls for repression and a shift into what has been referred to as zerotolerance policing. The police will then attempt to stop all crime, down to the smallest offences, such as evading transit fares and illegally posting signs, in order to give citizens a sense of basic order and to communicate that the Government will not tolerate even minor crimes. In the North American and European contexts these strategies make some sense.
Cities in low- and middle-income countries, however, often face substantial challenges in accomplishing this given the structure of the urban area and the extent of informal economies. The independent and long-standing judicial systems that usually exist in older democracies impose substantial constraints on the police excesses that may accompany these programmes, which evolving judicial systems in transitional democracies have difficulty imposing. Further, a relatively recent history of authoritarianism, colonialism and conflict may make it more likely that police forces will overstep the boundaries of zero tolerance and practise a more abusive form of policing.
However, while a police force in such circumstances may have the ability to repress the population more extensively, it will not have the concomitant investigatory and punishment capacity to give its actions longterm impact. This in turn can lead to ineffective and abusive policing that undermines State legitimacy and relations between police and citizens. Over time, this leads to more crime and less confidence in police and the State and can contribute to a spiral of crime and disorder.
Sampson and Stephen W. Problems with incident-oriented policing strategies Incident-oriented policing strategies are: "" Reactive, not proactive "" Dependent upon an investigatory and judicial apparatus, which often does not exist, to make them work "" Alienate the population from the police "" Undermine police intelligence-gathering efforts "" Damage police morale "" Lead to a repressive spiral that further decreases effectiveness "" Can contribute to poor oversight and corruption There are no easy solutions in setting up good policing in urban areas in low- and middle-income countries.
Any effort to police urban areas involves intensive and ongoing analysis and work on the part of public safety officials. Existing evidence across different regions, however, indicates that police should give serious consideration to proactive and integrative policing strategies that help police to prevent crimes and work better with the population in dealing with crime issues. Three related strategies that achieve this are intelligence-led or crime-specific policing, problemoriented policing and community-oriented policing.
Intelligence-led or crime-specific policing refers to a police model that has emerged in recent years that makes use of innovations in information technology and bureaucratic structures to efficiently deploy police forces to respond, in relatively short periods of time, to major crimes. In such policing efforts, local and regional police commanders are accountable to their superiors in the police force and in local government for crime rates in their areas of responsibility. This hierarchical system is enabled by a comprehensive data collection system that allows crimes to be geoprocessed so that law enforcement commanders can analyse where crimes are occurring and deploy resources appropriately to enforce order.
Managerial meetings are regularly held to assess the effectiveness of responses, reallocate resources and deploy new strategies. Cities around the world have adopted different versions of this approach. This detailed information system was combined with managerial innovations that enabled police commanders at tactical and strategic levels to hold their subordinates accountable for efforts to reduce crime around the city. The United Kingdom and other parts of the British Commonwealth have for some time advocated gathering data through both crime reports as well as broader intelligence strategies in order to help to build a coherent knowledge base to deploy police and control crime.
There is evidence that similar approaches have been deployed in Latin America, although to a much more limited extent. Usually, this also involves an accumulation of detailed knowledge about criminal activity by police and focused efforts to solve a problem. For example, police officers may notice that a very high number of assaults have occurred on a particular street corner. Police would then go to that corner at different times of the day and observe conditions there as well as talk to individuals who live and work in the vicinity in order to understand why the crimes were occurring.
They might ask other government agencies to address problems in the area, for example by repairing streetlights or by thinning foliage to decrease the chance of assault. Police may establish more frequent patrols of that particular place or they may even decide to station an officer there at critical times. These efforts should reduce crime in that spot. Problem-oriented policing also focuses on using the research and hypothesis-building techniques of social science in order to develop effective strategies to control crime.
This problem-solving method is organized under a strategy based on scanning, analysis, response and assessment. This involves understanding the types of crimes occurring in an area, establishing the implications of those crimes for police and the community, confirming that perceived problems actually exist, building a priority list of how police are going to address different problems they find in an area, understanding the duration and frequency of a problem and selecting problems for further study.
Analysis This phase focuses on developing a deeper understanding of a specific crime issue that has become a police priority. It includes efforts aimed at developing a deeper and wider understanding of a specific problem and how it has impacted other jurisdictions, gathering data to better understand the problem in the area of police focus, using that data to develop a hypothesis for why the problem is occurring and assessing the resources available to address the problem.
Response Here, police build on the knowledge they have developed to create a focused response. This includes establishing a list of possible interventions based on local knowledge and wider research, choosing a course of action and developing a plan for implementation, stating the objectives of the plan and implementing the plan.
Assessment Finally, the effects of all interventions must be evaluated through a variety of quantitative and qualitative strategies. Police work with crime data and information on evaluations of similar problems and interventions, and with community stakeholders to develop and implement solutions. Box 2 contains information on the CeaseFire programme in the United States. Box 2. The CeaseFire programme A variety of cities in the United States have pursued an innovative community-oriented violence control programme that focuses on building broad local, social and governmental support to control the activity of violent individuals.
Building on cutting-edge criminological theories, these programmes generally organize an intervention team that brings together a variety of different criminal justice actors and civic leaders who work with community leaders to bring violent criminals operating in the neighbourhood under control. Law enforcement officers inform criminals that a new programme is being implemented in the area and that certain types of activities will prompt increased efforts to imprison them.
Civic leaders and State officials work with community leaders to help create neighbourhood pressure on these same actors to stop violent activities. In the end, these programmes attempt to help community residents construct their own norms to control violence so that State resources can eventually move to other areas. Over time, these efforts have resulted in considerable drops in violence at multiple sites. Community-oriented policing offers a related approach to helping police deal with crime in urban environments.
Like problem-oriented policing, community-oriented policing is proactive in that it prioritizes crime prevention. Both approaches also focus on establishing crime prevention knowledge in consultation with the population. Community-oriented policing differs from problem-oriented policing in that it focuses on building relations with the population and thus producing a new form of order based on close relations between the police and the community, which solves problems through active dialogue between law enforcement officers and the population.
While community-oriented policing takes a variety of forms, it is usually based on the creation of formal mechanisms such as councils and specially trained units that help the police interact with the population in order to determine effective strategies, based on local knowledge, to prevent crime. This type of programme focuses on establishing a regular police presence in a specific place that is able to convey security to citizens, establish ties with residents and deal with crime. Rather than focusing on rigorous problem-solving methods, community-oriented policing seeks to decentralize the administration of police by bringing it to the neighbourhood level, thereby providing local commanders with a high degree of flexibility and creating mechanisms to enable local commanders to work with community residents to address their concerns and control crime.
The solution in community policing is to change the relationship between police and the community and through an ongoing dialogue to develop innovative and effective strategies to control crime. In the long run, the effectiveness of community policing involves engaging citizens effectively in solving their own crime problems by changing community norms and by serving as a check on police activities.
Box 3 contains information on community-based policing in Kenya. Box 3. Community-based policing in Kenya Facing high levels of violence and distrust of police, the non-governmental organizations Saferworld and Peacenet have worked with the police in Kenya to build an innovative community policing programme in some regions of that country. The project involves multiple levels of police-citizen engagement that include both weekly and monthly meetings between Government officials, civil society groups, police and citizens to discuss public safety concerns and cross-sectoral solutions to those problems.
The discussions have led to collaborative training programmes and joint patrols involving police and citizens. This has contributed to the surrender of illegal arms and to increasing trust between citizens and Government officials, thereby helping to develop new infrastructure projects to aid in local development. Such efforts have led to significant reductions in crime in the pilot programme areas. While such strategies have been developed around the world, there is a handful of cases where there have been notable successes.
The result has been a decrease in homicides from about 80 to about 20 per , inhabitants. This effort has contributed to a 47 per cent decline in crime rates in that city. Without accurate criminological data, however, it has been difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies. Kobans are small police posts located on streets, which enable police to maintain long-term interaction with area residents and cultivate knowledge about the area.
The geography of urban Japan is extremely complex and can best be understood through a longterm presence in a specific neighbourhood. The existence of kobans with specific areas and a stable cohort of officers enable the police to develop an intimate geographic knowledge that cannot be developed through other means. Kobans serve as local administrative centres, dispensing information to visitors and residents of areas looking for addresses or needing help from the Government.
They also serve as sounding boards where area residents can complain about local problems and resolve disputes. Police in the koban carry out annual surveys of businesses and residents by visiting the locations of homes and businesses. Police themselves become part of the community and develop knowledge that helps to control crime.
Efforts include the Indian panchayat system, Filipino barangays and the participatory budgeting processes adopted in some parts of Brazil and Colombia. In Colombia, armed groups have attempted to appropriate participatory budgeting for their own political purposes, and the police associated with barangays have been accused of abuses in the.
London, Verso, Both depart substantially from existing police practice in many places and face resistance. Implementing such types of programmes requires substantial support from police at a variety of levels, which is often difficult to achieve. At the same time, citizens in high crime areas who live in the wake of the effects of authoritarianism, colonialism and conflict often do not have positive relations with police.
It can be extremely challenging to implement either of these types of programme without those relationships. The programmes create levels of fatigue within policing institutions and society and will continue to exist only as long as senior public officials stand behind them. Finally, community policing programmes can degenerate into forms of vigilantism if taken over by certain segments of society.
While such programmes can be implemented with relative ease, it takes substantial investment on the part of police and community residents for them to succeed. These efforts, when properly implemented, hold out immense possibilities for improved security. Potential challenges to reform Potential challenges include: "" Lack of trust between police and community "" Lack of resources "" Police resistance "" Lack of political commitment "" Fatigue.
Police reform in context An in-depth discussion of police reform from the perspectives of the cultural, managerial and structural changes required to make the best use of the tactics and approaches discussed thus far is outside the scope of the Handbook. However, it should be noted that none of the tactics and approaches would be fully effective without cultural and managerial changes and changes in the way information is handled.
Police reform does not occur in isolation from wider social, political and economic factors, and police are only one part of a more extensive social and economic system. Many societies experience higher levels of violence as a result of income inequality, cultural factors or ready access to firearms. Law enforcement entities have no control over those issues but they are expected to address the effects, often with negative effects for morale.
Police officers work for government officials and the success of their efforts at reform often depends directly on the degree of support they have from those officials. Maintaining positive relations with wider groups at the State level and in society are essential to the successful adoption and implementation of policy. Serious crime control efforts entail developing detailed, long-term projects that involve substantial investment from various actors within the police, other government sectors and the population.
Both community policing and problem-oriented policing face serious challenges, but both have also encountered substantial success. Box 4 summarizes the key lessons drawn from chapter II. Box 4. Key lessons drawn from chapter II "" Traditional incident-based policing will generally have a limited impact on controlling crime in contemporary urban areas "" New strategies offer police important opportunities to control crime in complex urban spaces. These strategies include: - Community-oriented policing - Problem-oriented policing - Intelligence-led policing.
Conclusions Traditionally, police have pursued incident-based approaches to crime control that focus on arresting offenders after a crime has been committed in order to diminish the possibility that the offenders will commit crimes in the future. The cases and theories discussed in chapter II suggest that by using analytic, localized and evidencedbased approaches to crime control, police can more effectively control crime.
Analysing existing data, engaging with community members and pursuing other sources of information can help to develop efficient crime control strategies that deal more effectively with the problems facing growing cities. The insights offered by the strategies reflect tested approaches to crime control and are consistent with United Nations standards and norms in crime prevention and criminal justice.
At the heart of the analysis in the Handbook is the idea that the application of social scientific knowledge can help to control crime in urban areas. Chapter III suggests tools that police can use to prevent crime in urban spaces. While the preceding chapters have discussed the challenges facing police reform in cities in low- and middle-income countries, conceptual law enforcement frameworks and cases of innovative approaches to urban policing, chapter III continues to develop those themes through a focus on understanding how environmental and temporal factors can promote crime.
It also examines different strategies that police and public officials can use to better control crime in cities. The chapter lays out the general concepts underlying crime and the use of urban space, discusses various spatial and environmental approaches to controlling crime and looks at an interesting case study from Brazil, where some of the approaches were used effectively to reduce serious criminal activities.
Definitions Situational crime prevention. A theory and strategy of crime control focused on crime events. This approach suggests that collaboration between police, managers of spaces, criminal handlers and other citizens can help to create conditions that reduce the chances that a crime will occur. Rational choice. A broad array of social scientific theories that describe human behaviour in terms of rational motivation to achieve individual goals.
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