Johnson's injuries were treated and by the time he was returned to the police station, some four thousand people had gathered outside. Johnson was not bailed, and police said he could not go back to the hospital until his arraignment the following day. Nation members silently left, after which the rest of the crowd also dispersed. Soon the police department assigned undercover officers to infiltrate the Nation of Islam. These included the beliefs:. He and the Nation of Islam were described as hatemongers, black supremacists, racists, violence-seekers, segregationists, and a threat to improved race relations.
He was accused of being antisemitic. Rockwell believed that there was overlap between black nationalism and white supremacy. He proposed that African Americans should return to Africa and that, in the interim, a separate country for black people in America should be created. Muhammad ; the son told Malcolm X about his skepticism toward his father's "unorthodox approach" to Islam. In late , there were violent confrontations between Nation of Islam members and police in South Central Los Angeles, and numerous Muslims were arrested. They were acquitted, but tensions had been raised. A large crowd of angry Muslims came outside from the mosque.
The officers attempted to intimidate the crowd. One officer was disarmed by the crowd; his partner was shot in the elbow by a third officer. More than 70 backup officers arrived. They raided the mosque and randomly beat Nation of Islam members. Police officers shot seven Muslims, including William X Rogers, who was hit in the back and paralyzed for life, and Ronald Stokes, a Korean War veteran, who was shot from behind while raising his hands over his head to surrender, killing him.
A number of Muslims were indicted after the event, but no charges were made against the police. Furthermore, the coroner ruled that Stokes's killing was justified. Muhammad confirmed the rumors in , attempting to justify his behavior by referring to precedents set by Biblical prophets. He added that "chickens coming home to roost never did make me sad; they've always made me glad.
Kennedy, the Muslim leader cited the murders of Patrice Lumumba , Congo leader, of Medgar Evers , civil rights leader, and of the Negro girls bombed earlier this year in a Birmingham church. These, he said, were instances of other 'chickens coming home to roost'. The Nation of Islam, which had sent a message of condolence to the Kennedy family and ordered its ministers not to comment on the assassination, publicly censured their former shining star. He was still a Muslim, he said, but felt that the Nation had "gone as far as it can" because of its rigid teachings.
He said he was planning to organize a black nationalist organization to "heighten the political consciousness" of African Americans. He also expressed a desire to work with other civil rights leaders, saying that Elijah Muhammad had prevented him from doing so in the past. He soon converted to the Sunni faith.
He was delayed in Jeddah when his U. Azzam's son arranged for his release and lent him his personal hotel suite. The motion was taken from a statement made earlier that year by U. The town had become a byword for racial division after Conservative supporters used the slogan, "If you want a nigger for a neighbour, vote Labour. After returning to the U.
Get your hand outta my pocket! One gunman, Nation of Islam member Talmadge Hayer also known as Thomas Hagan , was beaten by the crowd before police arrived. Butler, today known as Muhammad Abdul Aziz, was paroled in and became the head of the Nation's Harlem mosque in ; he maintains his innocence. Released in , he maintained his innocence until his death in August It featured interviews with several people who worked with him, including A. There are those who will consider it their duty, as friends of the Negro people, to tell us to revile him, to flee, even from the presence of his memory, to save ourselves by writing him out of the history of our turbulent times.
And we will answer and say to them: Did you ever talk to Brother Malcolm? Did you ever touch him, or have him smile at you? Did you ever really listen to him? Did he ever do a mean thing? Was he ever himself associated with violence or any public disturbance? For if you did you would know him. And if you knew him you would know why we must honor him And, in honoring him, we honor the best in ourselves.
Actor and activist Ruby Dee and Juanita Poitier wife of Sidney Poitier established the Committee of Concerned Mothers to raise money for a home for his family and for his children's educations. While we did not always see eye to eye on methods to solve the race problem, I always had a deep affection for Malcolm and felt that he had a great ability to put his finger on the existence and root of the problem. He was an eloquent spokesman for his point of view and no one can honestly doubt that Malcolm had a great concern for the problems that we face as a race.
He responded with indignation towards the reporters interviewing him, shouting, "You did it! It is because of you—the men that created this white supremacy—that this man is dead. You are not guilty, but you did it Your mills, your cities, your rape of a continent started all this. Outside of the U. That title points to the nature of Malcolm's life and death. It is a testimony to Malcolm's personal depth and integrity that he could not become an underworld Czar, but turned again and again to religion for meaning and destiny.
Malcolm was still turning and growing at the time of his brutal and meaningless assassination. I could not agree with either of these men, but I could see in them a capacity for leadership which I could respect, and which was just beginning to mature in judgment and statesmanship.
Within days, the question of who bore responsibility for the assassination was being publicly debated. Into the hall sauntered about a dozen policemen. They were strolling at about the pace one would expect of them if they were patrolling a quiet park. They did not seem to be at all excited or concerned about the circumstances. I could hardly believe my eyes. Here were New York City policemen, entering a room from which at least a dozen shots had been heard, and yet not one of them had his gun out! As a matter of absolute fact, some of them even had their hands in their pockets.
Was Malcolm your traitor or ours? And if we dealt with him like a nation deals with a traitor, what the hell business is it of yours? A nation has to be able to deal with traitors and cutthroats and turncoats. No consensus has been reached on who was responsible for the assassination. Kennedy , Martin Luther King Jr.
Kennedy were among dozens of Americans who signed a public statement calling for a truth and reconciliation commission to persuade Congress or the Justice Department to review the assassinations of all four leaders during the s. His philosophy is known almost entirely from the many speeches and interviews he gave from until his death. The Nation of Islam proposed the establishment of a separate country for African Americans in the southern  or southwestern United States  as an interim measure until African Americans could return to Africa.
He felt that calling the movement a struggle for civil rights would keep the issue within the United States while changing the focus to human rights would make it an international concern. He said that he and the other members of the OAAU were determined to defend themselves from aggressors, and to secure freedom, justice and equality "by whatever means necessary". He emphasized the "direct connection" between the domestic struggle of African Americans for equal rights with the independence struggles of Third World nations. In a famous letter from Mecca, he wrote that his experiences with white people during his pilgrimage convinced him to "rearrange" his thinking about race and "toss aside some of [his] previous conclusions".
I realized racism isn't just a black and white problem. It's brought bloodbaths to about every nation on earth at one time or another. Well, I've lived to regret that incident. In many parts of the African continent I saw white students helping black people. Something like this kills a lot of argument. I did many things as a [Black] Muslim that I'm sorry for now.
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Well, I guess a man's entitled to make a fool of himself if he's ready to pay the cost. It cost me 12 years. That was a bad scene, brother. During the late s and early s, there was a resurgence of interest in his life among young people. The house that once stood at Pinkney Street in North Omaha , Nebraska, was the first home of Malcolm Little with his birth family.
The school is located in the building where Little attended elementary school. The U. Woodruff Library. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the person. For other uses, see Malcolm X disambiguation. For other uses, see Malcolm Little disambiguation and Malik Shabazz disambiguation. Muslim minister and human rights activist from the United States. Omaha, Nebraska , U. Manhattan , New York , U. Nation of Islam , Muslim Mosque, Inc.
Black nationalism , Pan-Africanism. Betty Shabazz m. Further information: Nation of Islam. Between Mr. In fact, up to then, I had never been so truly free in my life. Mosque Maryam in Chicago. Satokata Takahashi. Beliefs and theology. Offshoots and sects. Related organizations. Further information: Beliefs and theology of the Nation of Islam. The common goal of 22 million Afro-Americans is respect as human beings. We can never get civil rights in America until our human rights are first restored. We will never be recognized as citizens there until we are first recognized as humans. Just as the violation of human rights of our brothers and sisters in South Africa and Angola is an international issue and has brought the racists of South Africa and Portugal under attack from all other independent governments at the United Nations, once the miserable plight of the 22 million Afro-Americans is also lifted to the level of human rights our struggle then becomes an international issue, and the direct concern of all other civilized governments.
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We can then take the racist American Government before the World Court and have the racists in it exposed and condemned as the criminals that they are. See also: Malcolm X film. With the assistance of Alex Haley. New York: Grove Press, George Breitman , ed. New York: Merit Publishers, New York: Young Socialist Alliance, New York: Pathfinder Press, Archie Epps , ed. New York: Morrow, George Breitman, ed. Benjamin Karim, ed. New York: Monthly Review Press, The Last Speeches.
Bruce Perry, ed. Steve Clark, ed. February The Final Speeches. The Diary of Malcolm X : Herb Boyd and Ilyasah Shabazz , eds. Chicago: Third World Press, This name includes the honorific El-Hajj , given on completion of the Hajj to Mecca. Malise Ruthven Islam: A Very Short Introduction.
Oxford University Press. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, And Attallah was close to Attila the Hun, the warrior. I don't want to seem to sound self-righteous Maybe he does have some of the answer I have often wished that he would talk less of violence, because violence is not going to solve our problem. And in his litany of articulating the despair of the Negro without offering any positive, creative alternative, I feel that Malcolm has done himself and our people a great disservice Available evidence indicates that about one hundred thousand Negroes have joined the movement at one time or another, but few objective observers believe that the Black Muslims can muster more than twenty or twenty-five thousand active temple people.
I wish I'd been able to tell Malcolm that I was sorry, that he was right about so many things. But he was killed before I got the chance I might never have become a Muslim if it hadn't been for Malcolm. If I could go back and do it over again, I would never have turned my back on him. They were photographed greeting each other warmly, smiling and shaking hands. Hold it! Don't get excited. Let's cool it, brothers. According to a transcript of an audio recording, Malcolm's only words were, "Hold it!
DeCaro, p. It is absolutely impossible for us to differ. The state media agency's English-language announcement said merely that "the street July South Florida Times. Retrieved June 9, In Akhtar, Salman ed. Lanham, Md. The Black Scholar. The Atlantic. Retrieved September 7, Tell Me More. Journal of American Studies. Archived from the original on January 14, Retrieved March 20, Rolling Stone.
Retrieved June 19, New York. Spectrum: A Journal on Black Men. The New Republic. Retrieved June 26, August 10, Retrieved October 2, May 19, Archived from the original on May 26, Retrieved November 11, The 60s Without Apology. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
New York: Vintage Books. The New York Times. December 2, March 9, Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved June 20, Malcolm X: A Research Site. Independent Race and Refugee News Network. Institute of Race Relations. The Guardian. Retrieved April 17, Retrieved March 11, Muhammad Speaks. Nation of Islam. September Retrieved April 4, The Washington Post. Retrieved May 20, BBC News. March 31, The New York Post. February Retrieved June 13, The Grio. February 17, The Root. Retrieved September 24, The Official Website of Malcolm X. Retrieved August 9, The Martin Luther King Jr.
Research and Education Institute. Archived from the original on February 1, Retrieved May 28, February 22, March 5, February 26, New York Amsterdam News. March 13, Retrieved January 15, CBS News.
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May 14, The Final Call. May 15, The Boston Globe. January 10, Retrieved January 26, Spartacus Educational. New York: Basic Civitas Books. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved April 2, Amhert, N. New York: Columbia University Press. New York: Citadel Press. Teaming up with a cosmically powered Spider-Man, he took down Hartmann, a neo-Nazi fanatic. While Spidey fend off the robot mechanoids guarding the cocaine, Punisher set his charges and blew up the stockpile. When Microchip tapped into the Reavers computer system, the Australia-based mercenary group, he stole plans to build a combat robot dubbed the " Dalek ".
The group found the hack and decided to seek revenge the trashed the Punisher's safe house and then went after Microchip and Castle. Microchip created the Punisher's Exo-Armor to level the playing the field for Castle against the Reavers. Jigsaw returned looking for revenge alongside Rev. Sammy Smith. Eventually, it was evident that the war on crime had taken its toll on the Punisher's mind as he was losing his grip on his sanity.
In order to help his friend, Microchip locked Frank Castle up in one of their safehouses. He then found a former Navy Seal named Carlos Cruz and hoped he would be less violent in his actions. The Punisher eventually broke free of Micro's holding cell and threatened to kill him. It was at that precise moment that Stone Cold bombed the wall they were standing next to, seemingly killing Microchip.
After the Punisher killed Stone Cold, he started to wonder if he would really have killed Microchip himself. Seeing him dead, the Punisher simply walked away. The betrayal of his former partner had put Frank over the edge. It was then that Nick Fury apprehended the Punisher, and had him locked up in the S. The Punisher however, more deranged because of these events, managed not only to escape but apparently kill Fury when he tried to stop him. Nevertheless, Frank became a target for the law even bigger than ever before.
Frank eventually regained his sanity and returned to his crusade against crime, this time more in a shift towards the superhero community. Feeling an oncoming rush of danger however, Frank went undercover and was not seen for a number of months. Sometime after this Frank was convinced by demons led by the former Archangel Olivier to commit suicide and was then raised from death by the Angel Gadriel who used some of his own angelic power to restore Frank to life as well as granting him access to all the weapons of Heaven.
During this time Frank learned that Frank Costa, whose mob family were responsible for the death of his family, was in fact the demon Olivier who killed Frank's family so that the all the deaths Frank would then be responsible for would ultimately work as sacrifices for Olivier, allowing him to increase his power. Frank fought alongside Gadriel and seemingly killed Olivier. Taking the alias Mr.
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Smith, took an apartment in New York where he reluctantly befriended the neighbors Spacker Dave , Mr. Bumpo and Joan the Mouse. Castle decided to strike fear in the hearts of the criminals of New York by by targeting the Gnucci Crime Family. He planned to kill Ma Gnucci the matriarch of the family, but not before making her suffer first by killing her criminal sons Carlo Gnucci , Bobbie Gnucci and Eddie Gnucci. This however turned into a full scale war and he was shocked by how ruthless Ma Gnucci was. She used her connections with the N. The N. The remainder of her soldiers threw down their guns and left, saying that she "can't pay us enough to fight that.
Soap stepped down as the police commissioner and was placed back in control of the Punisher Task Force. Castle met with Soap to form an alliance who decided to provide him the information he could. Soon after while on a mission he encountered a newly resurrected Russian. After defeating Kreigkopf he stole one of his planes and dropped a hydrogen bomb on the island incinerating everyone.
Soap went to Castle regarding Tommy Casino an old school gangster being held prisoner in Colombia. He was imprisoned during a botched mob deal and was about to be executed. He sent Castle to rescue him as Tommy was the only person able to bring peace between the mob families and by doing so save a lot of lives. Tommy kept his word and brought all the major players of New York together for a peace summit, but this was just what Castle wanted who had arrived to the meeting himself with his M60, having used Tommy as an opportunity to wipe out the mob.
While still taking down the East Coast Mob, he encountered Wolverine who was also tracking down a murderer who cut a man in half. Logan believed Castle was responsible and attacked him. The fight was rough with Castle about to set Logan on fire when they were interrupted by a group of little people led by Tony Casino the brother of the late mafia don Tommy Casino whom the Punisher had recently killed.
They fought these little people who were revealed to be the killers, forcing the pair to team up. Knowing Wolverine would survive and come after him he trapped him under a steam roller as he escaped. While taking down a drug den he noticed a cop pocketing some of the drugs. He tracked the duo and took out their informant along the way as well torching drug dens. Castle had started to notice a decline in some of the usual activity he targeted in New York and went to question one of his informants to see what he could learn, the informant told him about a drug deal which Castle went to deal with, however what he found was instead professional gun runners who were selling dangerous weaponry.
A sniper on a nearby roof spotted Castle and alerted the others to his presence, while Castle was planning a response he got lucky and one of the gang members fumbled a rocket launcher and took himself and his men out for him. Frank returned to his informant who told him that the arms dealers he'd spotted and taken down originated in a small town called Branding located in Texas. Castle arrived in the town and quickly learned from a local woman, Kim Wells as well as the local Sheriff that they and the rest of the town were aware that there was a gang set up near their town with a lot of weaponry but nothing had been done about it, the Sheriff stated he wanted to keep the peace but he was also in a relationship with the leaders son which kept her men behaving themselves when they would enter the town.
It didn't take Castle to learn the location of the arms dealers, who were set up in a fortified compound outside the town, as well as the fact that their leader was a woman named Rachel. While visiting the towns bar Castle entered into a bar fight with a member of the gang who was carried a stolen military grade firearm without the serial number filed off, informing him that the gang were sourcing their weaponry from corrupt members of the Army. The leader of the gang, Rachel, lost her son to a homophobic hate crime after he was repeatedly run over in the desert and left for her people to find so in revenge she planned to lead her people against the town.
They didn't get far before the Sheriff attempted to reason with them and then engaged in a firefight instead when they wouldn't listen. This allowed Castle to infiltrate their compound and killed those who had not got along into town before soaking the compound in gasoline, piling up the weaponry and detonating the entire place with a grenade.
Rachel and her gang returned to the compound when they witnessed the explosion which left her more determined to fight after losing all of her product. Many of Rachel's gang were unwilling to continue following her, those who remained she convinced to attack the town to draw out their saboteur. Castle was aware they were coming for him and set himself up in town to kill as many of them as quickly as possible, Rachel escaped the initial slaughter and Castle followed after her, she attempted to murder him with a hatchet but he prevailed against her and after a short fight he was able to kill her by impaling her with a meat hook in her neck.
The man who killed Rachel's son is identified as local vocally bigoted Reverend and as Frank left town he attached the Reverend to the truck he had used to murder Rachel's son and dragged him to death from the back of it. Wolverine , Daredevil and Spider-Man teamed up to finally deal with Castle. He was on a mission destroying the Irish mob when he was confronted by the trio of heroes but was able to taunt them enough to set them off against each other allowing him to escape.
Daredevil however got the upper hand and tackled him out a window but he survived and warned Daredevil to leave him be. Spidey was freed when it was revealed the explosives were fake. Castle contacted Matt to arrange a meeting, but when they arrived they found the Hulk ,  whose human self had been suffering from amnesia when he was rescued by Castle and who proceeded to destroy the building after transforming.
Punisher then convinced Daredevil and the others to leave him alone and revealed that he had been feeding stew filled with plastic explosives that when detonated reverted Hulk him back to Banner. Castle would run up against Daredevil again soon after when Daredevil's defeat and subsequent imprisonment of the Kingpin led to a shake of the New York underworld that Hammerhead planned to exploit. Castle planned to take down by sniper rifle and learned that the crime boss was also working with the Jackal who he didn't initially recognise but with whom Castle had a regrettable history.
Daredevil intervened when Castle attempted to kill them and the two fought with Castle escaping to plan his next move. Hammerhead then sent Bushwacker after him who had improved upon his powers and weaponry after learning he was in fact a mutant. The fight the two engaged in attracted the attention of Daredevil who attempted to intervene which temporarily broke up their fight.
Castle stole bombs from a nearby army base and attracted the attention of both Bushwacker and Daredevil, using Daredevil to fight Bushwacker for him while he bombed Hammerheads base of operations only to learn that Daredevil had been responsible for their arrest already. Daredevil had become increasingly sick of Castle especially after he killed an assistant district attorney he knew, but was unaware was dirty. Castle lured Daredevil into a confrontation in which an innocent homeless man was shot by Castle accidentally. Castle went to the hospital to check and see if the man was okay and learned that a family he had gotten to know had been targeted by criminals and that their daughter Mary , who bored a resemblance to Castle's late wife, had been beaten and raped.
When her brother Martin was targeted Castle saved his life and worked to take out the men who were after them. Daredevil had become aware of the situation and when Castle was taking the men out as they came for Martin he arrived and attempted to convince him to surrender. The two of them fought one another once again and after being beaten by Daredevil and shot at by the police Castle was captured and ended up confined in Salamanca prison alongside Hammerhead and the Jackal where he would have a shot at getting to them he never would have had outside of the prison.
No longer imprisoned Castle planned to hit the Patrillo crime family whose numbers had been decimated some years before, leaving their leader to command them while staying in hiding and crossdressing so as not to give himself away. The family was being led by this man who secretly commanded his nephew to carry out his orders in the greater world. They spent millions to hire Bullseye to kill Castle for them, during their first skirmish they both escaped and Bullseye raised his price.
At a meeting between the Patrillo family and Bullseye, Castle attacked, killing most of the crime family and pursuing Bullseye who hijacked a public transport bus before crashing it into a bar full of criminals who Castle then took out, the police intervened and Bullseye disguised himself as a victim on the bus to get away. Castle hunted for the location of the Patrillo family and Bullseye for a week leading to another confrontation between them. Bullseye laid a trap for Castle who also laid one for him, after an explosive battle Bullseye reported to the Patrillo family that he had killed Castle, showing them Castle's blood stained shirt as proof.
Castle then arrived and killed the two remaining members of the Patrillo crime family and it was revealed that Bullseye had also been hired by the Patrillo's rival family to kill them and had used their hit on the Punisher to get him to do most of the work for him, and that he was the one who had targeted their family years prior, not Castle as they had believed. Initially Castle was not concerned about the civil war between the heroes until the government started using superpowered criminals to enforce the law.
After rescuing Spider-Man from Pro-Registration forces he brought the beaten and unconscious hero to the Anti-Registration hideout. Some heroes were apprehensive about having the vigilante in their midst while some were outraged not wanting him there at all, but after he assured them that he could get them into the Baxter Building Captain America allowed him to join. Unfortunately on the eve of the final battle two supervillains attempted to join the Anti-Registration forces and the Punisher killed them outright.
Enraged Captain America attacked Castle for his lack of self-control and for not finding the better man within himself. Bridge and S. Frank attempted to shoot Norman, but the Sentry stopped the bullet. Sentry began to fight Frank. Frank was able to hide in his van until a man named Henry led him to a hideout. Henry then gave Frank information on a drug ring he wanted the Punisher to eradicate. Hank took photos of the fight, which made the newspapers. Norman Osborn read it and ordered the Hood to have Frank killed.
The Hood needed help to take Frank down, so he brought Microchip back from the dead. The Hood said he would bring back David's son if he took out the Punisher. After Microchip failed to do so, the Hood summoned back some supervillains from the dead to help take out the Punisher. The Hood then took G. Bridge's wife away and killed her, while his son was kidnapped. The Hood also took Frank's family out of their grave.
Frank saw the Hood and Microchip, with G. Bridge tied up. The Hood told Frank to kill Bridge so he could have his family, and Microchip's son, back from the dead. Frank refused to do so. Microchip took the Hood's gun and killed G. Microchip's son and Frank's family were brought back to life. Frank was shocked to see his family alive. Frank used Firebrand 's flames to burn his family and Microchip's son alive. The Hood and Frank battled it out. While Frank was on the losing side, he bribed the Hood with one of his family members.
The Hood let him go and told him that Henry was Jigsaw's son. The Punisher went back to his van, kicking Henry out. Henry then said "Don't you want to undo what happened in the past? Soon after, Osborn dispatched Daken and dozens of H. When Frank and Daken fought one on one, Daken emerged victorious, slicing Frank to pieces.
Those pieces were then recovered by the Moloids and the Man-Thing. After his death at the hands of Daken, Castle was resurrected by Morbius and the Legion of Monsters as a patchwork Frankenstein-like creature to help them against a group of Samurai-like men lead by the mysterious Hellsgaard , who killed monsters for "not being of God". At first Frank refused to help them out and disappeared into the sewers.
The Living Mummy later tried to reason with him and showed him Wolfman's armory. Again he refused. When the group attacked the monsters hideout Frank was angered by the death of a child Moloid and fought back. After intense violent battles alongside the Legion of Monsters against Hellsgaard he would eventually take his revenge against Daken in Tokyo , but was interrupted by Wolverine. At the conclusion of the series, the character was transformed back into a normal human through use of the namesake of Ulysses Bloodstone. After healing completely he started hunting the Hood but without results so he went after Micro.
On his way a woman in a black leather suit attacked him. She pretended she was his burnt wife but it was later revealed that it was Lady Gorgon who he had also burned working with Jigsaw. This all ended with a final confrontation between Jigsaw, Henry, and Frank. Frank told Henry that if he ever saw him again, he would kill him. A violent gang war resulted in the murders of nearly 30 people at a wedding reception, including the groom, leaving the bride, Marine Sergeant Rachel Cole-Alves , a widow just hours after getting married.
Frank had connections with one of the detectives on the case and used the information he gave him to kill members of the Exchange , the group responsible, before the police had a chance to question them. He left one alive and followed him as he searched for a safe haven. But his bosses knew he was marked by the Punisher and killed him, then sent the new Vulture to kill Frank.
Though he won his battle with the Vulture, he was left seriously wounded, and spent the next three months recovering. There, he encountered Rachel Cole-Alves, who was using her Marine background to get revenge on the Exchange. Since they both wanted the same thing, the two began to work together. Eventually, Frank learned that Daredevil was in possession of the Omega Drive , a data drive made of Unstable Molecules containing information on multiple crime organizations, which Frank wanted for himself.