- Index of /page_3
- The Education Reform Movement
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Jefferson also explained that a public school system in which local communities maintained control was an excellent way for citizens to practice self-rule. In Jefferson proposed to the Virginia Assembly a program offering three years of public school to all children with the exception of black children. The outstanding male students would then have the opportunity to continue their schooling, eventually earning scholarships to universities. Citizens strongly resisted the idea of publicly funded education, objecting to the increased government involvement and the higher taxes necessary to pay for public schooling.
Jefferson's proposal was rejected by the assembly. Jefferson submitted his proposal two more times during the next few decades and each time it failed to pass. Although his efforts did lead to the creation of the University of Virginia and laid the groundwork for future public school systems, Jefferson died several years before public education became a reality. The transition to independent nationhood and a new century did not immediately result in changes to the existing methods of educating children.
Sophisticated schooling continued to be available only to children of the wealthy at private academies. In some communities, churches sponsored schools, paying part of students' tuition. Charity schools were funded by private donations, offering inexpensive or free education to lower-income families. Conditions in schools other than private academies were usually poor.
Class sizes were very large and included students of all ages. Schools struggled to heat the building in winter and to keep the facilities clean. As in earlier generations, Sunday school was the only source of learning for many children. For others, education came in the form of an apprenticeship, a period of learning a particular trade, such as carpentry, from a master of that trade. During the early decades of the s, dramatic change was brewing in the United States due to the Industrial Revolution , which had started in England in the mids and had begun trickling into the United States by the late s.
The Industrial Revolution was characterized by numerous inventions and innovations that transformed American society from a loosely connected group of agrarian, or farming, states to an economically powerful nation based in urban manufacturing.
Index of /page_3
Abundant factory jobs drew people to cities in the American Northeast, many from nearby family farms and others from European countries. As the cities grew, so did social ills such as poverty, crime, overcrowding, and disease. Searching for solutions to these problems, more and more citizens began calling for a public school system. Among the most determined supporters of public schools were those most likely to benefit from them: members of the working class. In the absence of free education, the working classes saw a future where they were unable to improve their lives, stuck in low-income jobs and tenement housing while the wealthy few became richer and more powerful.
As stated by Leonard Everett Fisher in his The Schools , "The result would be a virtual economic slavery that would undermine the course of political freedom envisioned by the Founding Fathers and in the end destroy the very meaning of a free America. Workers understood that a just society requires all children to be educated, not just those of the wealthy. As quoted on the Digital History Web site, a union organization known as the Philadelphia Workingmen's Committee declared in an document: "The original element of a despotism [a government possessing absolute power] is a monopoly of talent, which consigns [relegates] the multitude to comparative ignorance, and secures the balance of knowledge on the side of the rich and the rulers.
Working people understood that even free schools might not be accessible to the poorest working families, who needed their children's wages in order to survive. As a solution, some proposed manual labor schools that would combine wage-earning with study, allowing even children from desperately poor families to be educated. For families with children too young to work, a free school system would relieve them of the need to pay someone to care for their children while the parents worked. Workers, and other citizens as well, argued that public education was an essential tool for competing in an increasingly industrialized world.
A sophisticated and broad-based school system would produce a more highly skilled workforce. Better schooling would also lead to more inventions and innovations, critical to the continued growth of American manufacturing. In addition to those in the working class, a number of middle-class citizens also supported the notion of public education. Some advocated universal schooling, or free education for all children, out of a moral obligation to improve others' lives. Many considered it a necessity for imposing control on a rapidly changing nation.
With the explosive population growth in cities, ever-increasing numbers of young people spent their days wandering the streets, looking for ways to fill their time. Public schools would get children off the streets, instilling obedience and discipline. In addition, schools were seen as a valuable tool for deali0ng with the numerous immigrants moving to.
Massachusetts played a critical role in early American history and in many respects led the way in the development of a public school system. During the early colonial era, Massachusetts was the center of cultural and intellectual activity in the New World. The city of Boston was home to the nation's first secondary school , a private academy known as Boston Latin, which was established by Puritans in The following year, Harvard College was founded, the first institute of higher education in the colonies. The first class consisted of nine students.
In its earliest years, Harvard's mission was to educate graduates of Boston Latin for the ministry. In the Mather School was founded in Dorchester, becoming the first free American school. In Massachusetts passed the first law in the colonies mandating that all children be educated. The government gave no indication of how such a task would be accomplished. It only indicated that it was the duty of each town to establish some type of school to be paid for by the families in that community.
Just as it had been during the colonial era, Massachusetts was an education pioneer of the nineteenth century. In the city of Boston opened the English Classical School later known as the English School , the nation's first public high school. Unlike the public schools of the modern era, the English School charged tuition. What made it different from the private academies of that era was that some of its funding came from the government.
A few years later, in , Massachusetts passed a law stating that all towns with five hundred or more families had to establish at least two high schools, one for girls and one for boys. In Mary Lyon — founded Mount Holyoke Seminary, which was not actually a seminary but in fact the first non-religious institute of higher learning created just for women. Forty years later, Helen Magill White — , having studied at Boston University, became the first woman in American history to earn a Ph. Much of Massachusetts' prominence as a leader in school reform is due to Horace Mann , the champion of the common, or public, school in the mids.
Mann was a Massachusetts state legislator before becoming the secretary of the state's first board of education in As part of his campaign to establish quality education for all children, Mann played a key role in the founding of the nation's first teacher training institute, which opened in Lexington in More than a decade later, in , thanks to Mann's tireless lobbying, Massachusetts became the first state to require every child to get an education. In , the state again became a leader for the nation as the first state to admit all students to public schools, regardless of religion, race, or ethnicity.
American cities. Enrollment in public school would help immigrants assimilate, or blend into American culture, by teaching them American values and practices. Some Americans, particularly business owners and other elite members of the upper classes, strongly opposed the idea of a public school system. One reason for this opposition was fear that they would bear an undue burden in the tax-based funding of schools. In addition, they worried that educating the working classes would, in the future, deprive owners of their needed workers.
They felt that once all citizens had the opportunity of education, few would choose to perform manual labor.
If large numbers from the working classes could rise to the middle class, the social structure on which the wealthy elites had built their fortunes would collapse. Many religious leaders also objected to the establishment of a public school system. They were concerned that such schools would not teach religious doctrine and would reduce the importance of religion in citizens' lives.
Beginning in the late s, Massachusetts reformer Horace Mann led the charge for the nation's first statewide public-school system. As a member of the Massachusetts state legislature, Mann fought for the separation of church and state. He also worked to make many changes to his state's criminal justice system. He fought for the separation of the mentally ill from general prison populations, abolished the practice of public hangings, and established more appropriate punishments for petty crimes, many of which had formerly been punished by hanging.
Mann also addressed the issue of public education, embarking on a lifelong quest to establish free, mandatory schooling for American children. He convinced the Massachusetts legislature to establish a board of education for the purpose of building a statewide school system, the nation's first. In Mann became the first secretary of Massachusetts' newly formed board of education. As the head of the board of education, Mann traveled throughout Massachusetts, inspecting schools and persuading the citizens to support public education.
Over the course of six years, Mann inspected hundreds of schools. However, his findings troubled him. Many of the schools were in terrible condition, with inadequate lighting and heating, structural problems, and minimal textbooks and other supplies for the students. During his travels, Mann held town meetings to discuss the terrible state of the existing schools and to propose the establishment of a statewide network of free public schools, which he referred to as common schools.
Mann's vision for common schools involved high-quality education with professionally trained teachers. School would be mandatory and free for all children, funded completely by tax dollars. The state board of education would impose standards that all schools in the state would follow, including the use of standardized textbooks.
Mann went so far as to outline details of school life such as the use of bells and blackboards, the practice of dividing children by age and ability, and the tradition of midmorning recess for younger students. Mann encountered strong opposition wherever he went. People resented the idea of the government getting involved in local matters, and they objected intensely to paying higher taxes.
Particularly offensive was the notion that even the people who did not have children would have to pay taxes to educate the children of others. Factory owners also protested the loss of child workers, the cheapest segment of their workforce. Parents worried about meeting expenses without their older children's income. Mann ultimately persuaded people that quality education was necessary not only for the welfare of the children but for the survival of democracy in the United States.
Having won the support of the people, Mann went on to victory in the legislature, which dedicated a large sum of money to building a statewide school system.
By the early s, the Massachusetts legislature passed a law requiring all children to attend school and also mandated that the school year be at least six months long, the first such laws in the nation. A significant part of Mann's proposal involved teacher training. He obtained funding from the Massachusetts legislature to create the country's first teacher training college, built in Lexington in Mann's influence extended far beyond Massachusetts. His reports on school reform were widely read in the United States and in other nations as well. He traveled throughout the Northeast to lobby for common schools in those states.
His efforts led directly to statewide school systems throughout the region, and his tireless efforts laid the groundwork for the entire nation's public school systems. Although common schools were to provide a quality education to all children, the reality was that many children were excluded. In the northeastern United States, the number of European immigrants continued to grow.
Many from Ireland were Catholic, and they encountered resentment and discrimination from the largely Protestant populations of American cities. Such discrimination was readily apparent in schools and became a particular source of tension in the New York City schools. Education reformers spoke of common schools as nonsectarian, or not favoring one religion or denomination over another. But in practice, New York public schools used the Protestant version of the Bible and Protestant hymn books.
In addition, many textbooks contained anti-Irish and anti-Catholic references. It read: "The Irish immigration has emptied out the common sewers of Ireland into our waters. In response to such teachings, many Catholic parents in New York prevented their children from attending public schools. Catholic religious and community leaders voiced objections to paying taxes for schools where their children faced discrimination. They demanded that the government designate tax dollars for the construction of Catholic schools.
Opponents feared that this demand would soon be echoed by Jewish leaders and by other Christian denominations, resulting in a greatly diminished school fund. Thus began a debate in New York City about government funding of religious schools that has continued throughout the nation into the twenty-first century. Rather than award each religion its own share of public funding, New York officials made an effort to eliminate anti-Catholic bias in public schools. As a result, more Catholics did enroll in public schools. At the same time, however, the Catholic Church began establishing an extensive system of parochial schools, which are privately funded religious schools.
An New York law officially prohibited all religious teaching in public schools, but the law was widely ignored in classrooms. In addition to discrimination against Irish immigrants, many non-English-speaking immigrants were treated unfairly or excluded from public schools.
The Education Reform Movement
Girls also faced discrimination. Many people considered it unnecessary to educate girls. The children most routinely and systematically denied educational opportunities, however, were African Americans. In the South , most black children were slaves, and very few were allowed to learn basic skills like reading and writing. Attending school was not an option. In the free states, black children were either prevented from attending public schools or, in cities like Boston and New York, were sent to all-black schools that were highly inferior to the white schools. Some black citizens felt that their best option was to improve the quality of black schools.
However, most believed that segregation the separation of the races was wrong, and that they had to fight for their children to be allowed to enroll in the all-white public schools. In the mids, one African American parent began a fight with the Boston school district. He wanted his daughter to be able to attend an all-white school near their home rather than travel a great distance to an all-black school. Benjamin Roberts sued the City of Boston and lost, then pleaded his case to the Massachusetts legislature. In Massachusetts became the first state in the nation to pass a law prohibiting segregation in schools.
Problems faced by the growing network of public schools soon faded into the background as the nation split in two over the issues of slavery and states' rights. Tensions between the North and South escalated throughout the mids, culminating in the American Civil War — After the war, the federal government began a program known as Reconstruction, designed to rebuild the South and unify the war-torn nation.
With the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U. Constitution in , slavery was abolished throughout the United States. Constitutional amendments and civil rights acts followed which further expanded the legal rights of African Americans. They were granted citizenship, equal protection under the law, and the right to vote, among other rights.
For a brief period, until the Reconstruction Era —77 ended, African Americans were able to exercise some rights in American society. Finally being able to receive an education was among their most treasured goals. For most southern blacks, the post- Civil War period was their first opportunity to attend any kind of school. The Freedman's Bureau, an agency designed to help former slaves find jobs and homes after emancipation, or freedom from slavery, built numerous schools for African American children during Reconstruction.
Once Reconstruction had ended, and the federal government no longer had any control in the South, most southern states dramatically cut their education budgets, with black schools hit the hardest. For the next several generations, southern schools were the poorest in the nation, with black schools being deprived the most. Elsewhere in the nation, public schools experienced tremendous growth in the last decades of the s.
While many citizens continued to oppose the practice of taxing all citizens' property to pay for some citizens' children to go to school, more and more cities successfully established public school systems. For many newly established states in the West, education was seen as a critical way to build communities and attract settlers. Government officials saw public schools as an effective way to tame the Wild West , teaching pioneer children proper American values and behavior.
A series of books known as the McGuffey readers played a significant role in that campaign. Used by millions of schoolchildren during the s, the McGuffey readers served as standardized textbooks teaching children how to read, write, and spell. Those textbooks intended for older students also contained instruction in history, science, and philosophy. Equally important to parents and teachers, the McGuffey readers, named for their authors, William Holmes McGuffey — and his brother Alexander — , taught religious, patriotic, and moral values.
The McGuffey readers, through their teachings about the importance of hard work and the divine blessings of the United States, are credited with spreading the American value system to the entire nation. To meet the rapidly growing demand, schools in the western states were established quickly, in whatever space was available.
Numerous women, trained as teachers in the Northeast, made the long journey west to teach pioneer children. Thanks to the efforts of women's rights advocate Catharine Beecher — , teaching had become a respected and popular profession for women. As such, many women felt it was their duty to travel far from home to bring enlightenment to the frontier.
The conditions of most of the pioneer schools were shocking to the newly arrived teachers, with some schools little more. Catharine Beecher, a member of a prominent family in nineteenth-century New England , devoted her life to expanding women's rights. She particularly promoted the right of girls to receive a broad education and the right of women to deliver that education as teachers. Beecher's outlook was not radical.
She advocated an education for women so that they could excel in their traditional role as wives and mothers, not so they could break free of the barriers that society placed on them. She believed women would be excellent teachers because of their nurturing skills and their ability to serve as moral guides. Lyman Beecher was a well-known and influential minister. Catharine's sister Harriet, writing as Harriet Beecher Stowe , later became famous as the author of Uncle Tom 's Cabin , a novel depicting the horrors and humiliation of slavery.
The Beecher family moved to Litchfield, Connecticut, in Catharine Beecher entered a private school for girls, learning about manners and morals as well as painting and music. At the age of sixteen, Beecher had to leave the school when her mother died. She spent the next few years helping to care for her siblings and run the family home. At the age of eighteen Beecher took a job as a teacher at a private girls' school in New London, Connecticut. In she opened her own school in Hartford called the Hartford Female Seminary. She rapidly gained a reputation for providing young women with a quality education, a rare experience in that era.
Her students studied the usual female topics of morals and religion, but Beecher also featured courses in algebra, chemistry, physics, history, Latin, and other subjects. When her father moved to Cincinnati in , Beecher went with him, opening another school there, the Western Female Institute. Around that time Beecher had begun a quest to educate women for the teaching profession.
In the United States , for example, according to the widely recognized " Statement on Academic Freedom and Tenure" of the American Association of University Professors , teachers should be careful to avoid controversial matters that are unrelated to the subject discussed. When they speak or write in public, they are free to express their opinions without fear from institutional censorship or discipline, but they should show restraint and clearly indicate that they are not speaking for their institution.
Although the notion of academic freedom has a long implicit history Leiden University , founded in , birthplace of the modern concept [ citation needed ] , the idea was first clearly formulated in response to the encroachments of the totalitarian state on science and academia in general for the furtherance of its own goals. For instance, in the Soviet Union , scientific research was brought under strict political control in the s. A number of research areas were declared " bourgeois pseudoscience " and forbidden, notably genetics  see " Lysenkoism " and sociology.
In contrast to this approach, Michael Polanyi argued that a structure of liberty is essential for the advancement of science — that the freedom to pursue science for its own sake is a prerequisite for the production of knowledge through peer review and the scientific method. In , as a consequence of an invitation to give lectures for the Ministry of Heavy Industry in the USSR, Polanyi met Bukharin , who told him that in socialist societies all scientific research is directed to accord with the needs of the latest five-year plan. Demands in Britain for centrally planned scientific research led Polanyi, together with John Baker , to found the influential Society for Freedom in Science.
In a series of articles, re-published in The Contempt of Freedom and The Logic of Liberty , Polanyi claimed that co-operation amongst scientists is analogous to the way in which agents co-ordinate themselves within a free market. Just as consumers in a free market determine the value of products, science is a spontaneous order that arises as a consequence of open debate amongst specialists. Science can therefore only flourish when scientists have the liberty to pursue truth as an end in itself:. Such self-co-ordination of independent initiatives leads to a joint result which is unpremeditated by any of those who bring it about.
Any attempt to organize the group It would, in effect, paralyse their co-operation. Proponents of academic freedom believe that the freedom of inquiry by students and faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy. They argue that academic communities are repeatedly targeted for repression due to their ability to shape and control the flow of information.
When scholars attempt to teach or communicate ideas or facts that are inconvenient to external political groups or to authorities, they may find themselves targeted for public vilification, job loss, imprisonment, or even death. For example, in North Africa, a professor of public health discovered that his country's infant mortality rate was higher than government figures indicated.
He lost his job and was imprisoned. The fate of biology in the Soviet Union is also cited [ citation needed ] as a reason why society has an interest in protecting academic freedom. A Soviet biologist Trofim Lysenko rejected Western science — then focused primarily on making advances in theoretical genetics, based on research with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster — and proposed a more socially relevant approach to farming that was based on the collectivist principles of dialectical materialism.
Lysenko called this " Michurinism ", but it is more popularly known today as Lysenkoism. Lysenko's ideas proved appealing to the Soviet leadership, in part because of their value as propaganda, and he was ultimately made director of the Soviet Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Subsequently, Lysenko directed a purge of scientists who professed "harmful ideas", resulting in the expulsion, imprisonment, or death of hundreds of Soviet scientists. Lysenko's ideas were then implemented on collectivised farms in the Soviet Union and China. Famines that resulted partly from Lysenko's influence are believed to have killed 30 million people in China alone.
AFAF Academics For Academic Freedom of the United Kingdom  is a campaign for lecturers, academic staff and researchers who want to make a public statement in favour of free enquiry and free expression. Their statement of Academic Freedom has two main principles:. AFAF and those who agree with its principles believe that it is important for academics to be able not only to express their opinions, but also to put them to scrutiny and to open further debate.
They are against the idea of telling the public Platonic "noble lies" and believe that people need not be protected from radical views. The concept of academic freedom as a right of faculty members is an established part of most legal systems. Different from the United States, where academic freedom is derived from the guarantee of free speech under the First Amendment , constitutions of other countries and particularly of civil law jurisdictions typically grant a separate right to free learning, teaching, and research.
During the interwar years cir. As well, many Canadian academics of the time considered their position to be remote from the world of politics and felt they had no place getting involved in political issues. However, with the increase of socialist activity in Canada during the Great Depression , due to the rise of social gospel ideology, some left-wing academics began taking active part in contemporary political issues outside the university. Thus, individuals such as Frank H. Underhill at the University of Toronto and other members or affiliates with the League for Social Reconstruction or the socialist movement in Canada who held academic positions, began to find themselves in precarious positions with their university employers.
Frank H. Underhill, for example, faced criticism from within and without academia and near expulsion from his university position for his public political comments and his involvement with the League for Social Reconstruction and the Co-Operative Commonwealth Federation. According to Michiel Horn this era marked, " The nature of the institutions, natural caution and professional pre-occupation had before the Depression inhibited the professoriate.
None of these conditions changed quickly, but even at the provincial universities there were brave souls in the s who claimed, with varying success, the right publicly to discuss controversial subjects and express opinions about them. The Education Reform Act established the legal right of academics in the UK 'to question and test received wisdom and to put forward new ideas and controversial or unpopular opinions without placing themselves in jeopardy of losing their jobs or the privileges they may have' .
The principles of academic freedom are also articulated in the statutes of most UK universities. Concerns have been raised regarding threats to academic freedom in the UK, including the harassment of feminist academics . In response to such concerns, the Equality and Human Rights Commission has issued guidance . Professors at public French universities and researchers in public research laboratories are expected, as are all civil servants , to behave in a neutral manner and to not favor any particular political or religious point of view during the course of their duties.
However, the academic freedom of university professors is a fundamental principle recognized by the laws of the Republic, as defined by the Constitutional Council ; furthermore, statute law declares about higher education that "teachers-researchers university professors and assistant professors , researchers and teachers are fully independent and enjoy full freedom of speech in the course of their research and teaching activities, provided they respect, following university traditions and the dispositions of this code, principles of tolerance and objectivity".
The German Constitution German : Grundgesetz specifically grants academic freedom: "Art and science, research and teaching are free. Freedom of teaching does not absolve from loyalty to the constitution" Art. In a tradition reaching back to the 19th century, jurisdiction has understood this right as one to teach Lehrfreiheit , study Lernfreiheit , and conduct research Freiheit der Wissenschaft freely, although the last concept has sometimes been taken as a cover term for the first two.
Lehrfreiheit embraces the right of professors to determine the content of their lectures and to publish the results of their research without prior approval.
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Since professors through their Habilitation receive the right to teach Latin : venia docendi in a particular academic field, academic freedom is deemed to cover at least the entirety of this field. Lernfreiheit means a student's right to determine an individual course of study. Finally, Freiheit der Wissenschaft permits academic self-governance and grants the university control of its internal affairs.
Fagoonee, who had forwarded a circular sent by the Ministry of Education to academics. According to the paper, academics were annoyed by the fact that the vice chancellor had endorsed the circular by sending it to them when it was addressed to public officers.
The institutional bureaucracy and the dependence on the state for funds has restricted the freedom of academics to criticize government policy. Kasenally an educator at the University of Mauritius expresses her views on academic freedom in the university. In the Netherlands the academic freedom is limited.
The Philippine Constitution states that, "Academic Freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning. This decision was sustained upon appeal by the dissenting faculty and Professor Raymundo to the University of the Philippines at Diliman Chancellor Sergio S. Roman , Roman denied the appeal which was elevated by Professor Raymundo to the university's board of regents for decision and the BOR granted her request for tenure. A major bone of contention among the supporters of Professor Raymundo was not to question the institutional Academic Freedom of the department in not granting her tenure, but in asking for transparency in how the Academic Freedom of the department was exercised, in keeping with traditions within the University of the Philippines in providing a basis that may be subject to peer review, for Academic decisions made under the mantle of Academic Freedom.
The South African Constitution of offers protection of academic freedom and the freedom of scholarly research. There have been an abundance of scandals over the restricted academic freedom at a number of universities in South Africa. Academic freedom pertains to forms of expression by academic staff engaged in scholarship and is defined by the Education Act s 2 as: a The freedom of academic staff and students, within the law, to question and test received wisdom, to put forward new ideas and to state controversial or unpopular opinions; b The freedom of academic staff and students to engage in research; c The freedom of the university and its staff to regulate the subject matter of courses taught at the university; d The freedom of the university and its staff to teach and assess students in the manner they consider best promotes learning; and e The freedom of the university through its council and vice-chancellor to appoint its own staff.
Seven regional accreditors work with American colleges and universities, including private and religious institutions, to implement this standard. Additionally, the AAUP, which is not an accrediting body, works with these same institutions. The AAUP does not always agree with the regional accrediting bodies on the standards of protection of academic freedom and tenure. A prominent feature of the English university concept is the freedom to appoint faculty, set standards and admit students.
This ideal may be better described as institutional autonomy and is distinct from whatever freedom is granted to students and faculty by the institution. The Supreme Court of the United States said that academic freedom means a university can "determine for itself on academic grounds:. In a case, a federal court in Virginia ruled that professors have no academic freedom; all academic freedom resides with the university or college. Calculating with DateTime is possible with the DateInterval class. DateTime has methods like add and sub that take a DateInterval as an argument.
Do not write code that expect same number of seconds in every day, both daylight saving and timezone alterations will break that assumption. Use date intervals instead. To calculate date difference use the diff method. It will return new DateInterval, which is super easy to display. One last example to demonstrate the DatePeriod class.
It is used to iterate over recurring events. It can take two DateTime objects, start and end, and the interval for which it will return all events in between. It inherits everything in the DateTime class, so involves minimal code alterations, but extra features include Localization support, further ways to add, subtract and format a DateTime object, plus a means to test your code by simulating a date and time of your choosing.
When you are building your application it is helpful to use common patterns in your code and common patterns for the overall structure of your project. Using common patterns is helpful because it makes it much easier to manage your code and lets other developers quickly understand how everything fits together. If you use a framework then most of the higher level code and project structure will be based on that framework, so a lot of the pattern decisions are made for you. But it is still up to you to pick out the best patterns to follow in the code you build on top of the framework.
Right now PHP does not support Unicode at a low level. However, most string functions, like strpos and strlen , do need special consideration. If you forget even just once, your Unicode string has a chance of being garbled during further processing. Explicitly defining the encoding of your strings in every script will save you a lot of headaches down the road. Additionally, many PHP functions that operate on strings have an optional parameter letting you specify the character encoding.
You should always explicitly indicate UTF-8 when given the option. For example, htmlentities has an option for character encoding, and you should always specify UTF-8 if dealing with such strings. Note that as of PHP 5. This will use mbstring if it is available, and fall back to non UTF-8 functions if not.
See example code below. This is critically important. Note that you must use the utf8mb4 character set for complete UTF-8 support, not the utf8 character set! See Further Reading for why. Today, it is common to set the character set in the HTTP response header like this:. Disclaimer for newcomers: i18n and l10n are numeronyms, a kind of abbreviation where numbers are used to shorten words - in our case, internationalization becomes i18n and localization, l10n.
This way is, however, hardly recommended for serious projects, as it poses some maintenance issues along the road - some might appear in the very beginning, such as pluralization. The most classic way and often taken as reference for i18n and l10n is a Unix tool called gettext. It dates back to and is still a complete implementation for translating software. It is easy enough to get running, while still sporting powerful supporting tools. It is about Gettext we will be talking here. Also, to help you not get messy over the command-line, we will be presenting a great GUI application that can be used to easily update your l10n source.
There are common libraries used that support Gettext and other implementations of i18n. Some of them may seem easier to install or sport additional features or i18n file formats. In this document, we focus on the tools provided with the PHP core, but here we list others for completion:. Other frameworks also include i18n modules, but those are not available outside of their codebases:.
If you decide to go for one of the libraries that provide no extractors, you may want to use the gettext formats, so you can use the original gettext toolchain including Poedit as described in the rest of the chapter. You might need to install Gettext and the related PHP library by using your package manager, like apt-get or yum. Here we will also be using Poedit to create translation files.
There are three files you usually deal with while working with gettext. There are some cases, in big projects, where you might need to separate translations when the same words convey different meaning given a context. In those cases, you split them into different domains. In Symfony projects, for example, domains are used to separate the translation for validation messages. A locale is simply a code that identifies one version of a language. It is defined following the ISO and ISO alpha-2 specs: two lower-case letters for the language, optionally followed by an underline and two upper-case letters identifying the country or regional code.
For rare languages , three letters are used. For some speakers, the country part may seem redundant. To use Gettext, we will need to adhere to a specific structure of folders. First, you will need to select an arbitrary root for your l10n files in your source repository. As we said in the introduction, different languages might sport different plural rules. However, gettext saves us from this trouble once again. When creating a new. When calling Gettext in code, you will have to specify the number related to the sentence, and it will work out the correct form to use - even using string substitution if needed.
Plural rules include the number of plurals available and a boolean test with n that would define in which rule the given number falls starting the count with 0. For example:. When calling out Gettext to do localization on sentences with counters, you will have to provide it the related number as well. Gettext will work out what rule should be in effect and use the correct localized version.
You will need to include in the. The first section works like a header, having the msgid and msgstr especially empty. It describes the file encoding, plural forms and other things that are less relevant. The second section translates a simple string from English to Brazilian Portuguese, and the third does the same, but leveraging string replacement from sprintf so the translation may contain the user name and visit date. The last section is a sample of pluralization forms, displaying the singular and plural version as msgid in English and their corresponding translations as msgstr 0 and 1 following the number given by the plural rule.
The plural forms always have two msgid singular and plural , so it is advised not to use a complex language as the source of translation. As you might have noticed, we are using as source ID the actual sentence in English. That msgid is the same used throughout all your. The Gettext manual favors the first approach as, in general, it is easier for translators and users in case of trouble. That is how we will be working here as well. However, the Symfony documentation favors keyword-based translation, to allow for independent changes of all translations without affecting templates as well.
In a typical application, you would use some Gettext functions while writing static text in your pages. Those sentences would then appear in. One of the great advantages Gettext has over custom framework i18n packages is its extensive and powerful file format. This guide is based on PoEdit 1. Now, save the file - using that directory structure we mentioned as well.
After setting those points it will run a scan through your source files to find all the localization calls. After every scan PoEdit will display a summary of what was found and what was removed from the source files. Save it and a. As you may have noticed before, there are two main types of localized strings: simple ones and those with plural forms.
The first ones have simply two boxes: source and localized string. Tip: you may right-click a translation line and it will hint you with the source files and lines where that string is being used. On the other hand, plural form strings include two boxes to show the two source strings, and tabs so you can configure the different final forms. Whenever you change your sources and need to update the translations, just hit Refresh and Poedit will rescan the code, removing non-existent entries, merging the ones that changed and adding new ones.
It may also try to guess some translations, based on other ones you did. It is also useful if you have a translation team and someone tries to write something they are not sure about: just mark Fuzzy, and someone else will review later. From that menu, you can also open parts of the UI that allow you to leave contextual information for translators if needed.
It happens the first time it is read, and then, to update it, you might need to restart the server. Many custom i18n libraries from frameworks use something similar to t as well, to make translated code shorter. However, that is the only function that sports a shortcut. It is just a field in the. You need to include there the specifications of those new functions, following a specific format :. After including those new rules in the. Dependency injection is a software design pattern that allows the removal of hard-coded dependencies and makes it possible to change them, whether at run-time or compile-time.
This quote makes the concept sound much more complicated than it actually is. Dependency Injection is providing a component with its dependencies either through constructor injection, method calls or the setting of properties. It is that simple. Here we have a Database class that requires an adapter to speak to the database.
We instantiate the adapter in the constructor and create a hard dependency. This makes testing difficult and means the Database class is very tightly coupled to the adapter. Now we are giving the Database class its dependency rather than creating it itself. These are the complex problems that Dependency Injection solves. In terms of Dependency Injection, this means loosening our dependencies by controlling and instantiating them elsewhere in the system.
For years, PHP frameworks have been achieving Inversion of Control, however, the question became, which part of control are we inverting, and where to? For example, MVC frameworks would generally provide a super object or base controller that other controllers must extend to gain access to its dependencies. This is Inversion of Control, however, instead of loosening dependencies, this method simply moved them.
Dependency Injection allows us to more elegantly solve this problem by only injecting the dependencies we need, when we need them, without the need for any hard coded dependencies at all. The Single Responsibility Principle is about actors and high-level architecture. The largest benefit of this approach is that it enables improved code reusability.
By designing our class to do just one thing, we can use or re-use it in any other program without changing it. Practically speaking, this means that we should write classes that implement and adhere to interfaces , then type-hint against those interfaces instead of specific classes.
The largest benefit of this approach is that we can very easily extend our code with support for something new without having to modify existing code, meaning that we can reduce QA time, and the risk for negative impact to the application is substantially reduced. We can deploy new code, faster, and with more confidence. The Liskov Substitution Principle is about subtyping and inheritance.
For example, if we have a FileInterface interface which defines an embed method, and we have Audio and Video classes which both implement the embed method, then we can expect that the usage of the embed method will always do the thing that we intend. If we later create a PDF class or a Gist class which implement the FileInterface interface, we will already know and understand what the embed method will do. The largest benefit of this approach is that we have the ability to build flexible and easily-configurable programs, because when we change one object of a type e.
For example, a Car or Bus class would be interested in a steeringWheel method, but a Motorcycle or Tricycle class would not. Conversely, a Motorcycle or Tricycle class would be interested in a handlebars method, but a Car or Bus class would not. There is no need to have all of these types of vehicles implement support for both steeringWheel as well as handlebars , so we should break-apart the source interface. The Dependency Inversion Principle is about removing hard-links between discrete classes so that new functionality can be leveraged by passing a different class.
Do not depend on concretions. We can easily refactor the above example to follow this principle. There are several benefits to the Database class now depending on an interface rather than a concretion. Consider that we are working in a team and the adapter is being worked on by a colleague.
In our first example, we would have to wait for said colleague to finish the adapter before we could properly mock it for our unit tests. An even bigger benefit to this method is that our code is now much more scalable. If a year down the line we decide that we want to migrate to a different type of database, we can write an adapter that implements the original interface and injects that instead, no more refactoring would be required as we can ensure that the adapter follows the contract set by the interface. The first thing you should understand about Dependency Injection Containers is that they are not the same thing as Dependency Injection.
A container is a convenience utility that helps us implement Dependency Injection, however, they can be and often are misused to implement an anti-pattern, Service Location. Injecting a DI container as a Service Locator in to your classes arguably creates a harder dependency on the container than the dependency you are replacing.
It also makes your code much less transparent and ultimately harder to test. Most modern frameworks have their own Dependency Injection Container that allows you to wire your dependencies together through configuration. What this means in practice is that you can write application code that is as clean and de- coupled as the framework it is built on. Many times your PHP code will use a database to persist information.
You have a few options to connect and interact with your database. The recommended option until PHP 5. Native drivers are great if you are only using one database in your application, but if, for example, you are using MySQL and a little bit of MSSQL, or you need to connect to an Oracle database, then you will not be able to use the same drivers. The mysql extension for PHP is incredibly old and has been superseded by two other extensions:. Not only did development stop long ago on mysql , but it was deprecated as of PHP 5. To save digging into your php.
Even if you are not using PHP 7. Not only is that a gross oversimplification, it misses out on the advantages that mysqli provides, such as parameter binding, which is also offered in PDO. More importantly, PDO allows you to safely inject foreign input e. This is possible using PDO statements and bound parameters. This ID should be used to fetch a user record from a database.
This is the wrong way to do this:. This is terrible code. You are inserting a raw query parameter into a SQL query. This will get you hacked in a heartbeat, using a practice called SQL Injection. This is correct code. It uses a bound parameter on a PDO statement. This escapes the foreign input ID before it is introduced to the database preventing potential SQL injection attacks. You should also be aware that database connections use up resources and it was not unheard-of to have resources exhausted if connections were not implicitly closed, however this was more common in other languages.
Using PDO you can implicitly close the connection by destroying the object by ensuring all remaining references to it are deleted, i. When developers first start to learn PHP, they often end up mixing their database interaction up with their presentation logic, using code that might look like this:. While there are many other solutions to doing this - depending on if you prefer OOP or functional programming - there must be some element of separation. That is a good start. Create a simple.
This is essentially the same as what most modern frameworks are doing, albeit a little more manual. You might not need to do all of that every time, but mixing together too much presentation logic and database interaction can be a real problem if you ever want to unit-test your application. PHPBridge has a great resource called Creating a Data Class which covers a very similar topic, and is great for developers just getting used to the concept of interacting with databases. Many frameworks provide their own abstraction layer which may or may not sit on top of PDO.
These will often emulate features for one database system that is missing from another by wrapping your queries in PHP methods, giving you actual database abstraction instead of just the connection abstraction that PDO provides. This will of course add a little overhead, but if you are building a portable application that needs to work with MySQL, PostgreSQL and SQLite then a little overhead will be worth it the sake of code cleanliness.
Some abstraction layers have been built using the PSR-0 or PSR-4 namespace standards so can be installed in any application you like:. Templates provide a convenient way of separating your controller and domain logic from your presentation logic. The main benefit to using templates is the clear separation they create between the presentation logic and the rest of your application. Templates have the sole responsibility of displaying formatted content.
They are not responsible for data lookup, persistence or other more complex tasks. This leads to cleaner, more readable code which is especially helpful in a team environment where developers work on the server-side code controllers, models and designers work on the client-side code markup. Templates also improve the organization of presentation code. This approach encourages code reuse where larger blocks of code are broken into smaller, reusable pieces, often called partials. For example, your site header and footer can each be defined as templates, which are then included before and after each page template.