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  1. Government Defeats in the House of Lords
  2. RELATED ARTICLES
  3. Recent Publications
  4. Oxford Public International Law: Pinochet Cases

Of the remaining ninety peers sitting in the Lords by virtue of a hereditary peerage , 15 are elected by the whole House and 75 are chosen by fellow hereditary peers in the House of Lords, grouped by party. If a hereditary peerage holder is given a life peerage, he or she becomes a member of the House of Lords without a need for a by-election. The number of hereditary peers to be chosen by a political group reflects the proportion of hereditary peers that belonged to that group see current composition below in When an elected hereditary peer dies, a by-election is held, with a variant of the Alternative Vote system being used.

If the recently deceased hereditary peer had been elected by the whole House, then so is his or her replacement; a hereditary peer elected by a specific political group including the non-aligned crossbenchers is replaced by a vote of the hereditary peers already elected to the Lords belonging to that political group whether elected by that group or by the whole house. Until , the Lords Temporal also included the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary , more commonly known as Law Lords, a group of individuals appointed to the House of Lords so that they could exercise its judicial functions.

They were selected by the Prime Minister of the day, but were formally appointed by the Sovereign. A Lord of Appeal in Ordinary had to retire at the age of 70, or, if his or her term was extended by the government, at the age of 75; after reaching such an age, the Law Lord could not hear any further cases in the House of Lords. The number of Lords of Appeal in Ordinary excluding those who were no longer able to hear cases because of age restrictions was limited to twelve, but could be changed by statutory instrument.

By a convention of the House, Lords of Appeal in Ordinary did not take part in debates on new legislation, so as to maintain judicial independence. Lords of Appeal in Ordinary held their seats in the House of Lords for life, remaining as members even after reaching the judicial retirement age of 70 or Former Lord Chancellors and holders of other high judicial office could also sit as Law Lords under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act, although in practice this right was only rarely exercised.

Under the Constitutional Reform Act , the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary when the Act came into effect in became judges of the new Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and were then barred from sitting or voting in the House of Lords until they had retired as judges. One of the main justifications for the new Supreme Court was to establish a separation of powers between the judiciary and the legislature.

The largest group of Lords Temporal, and indeed of the whole House, are life peers. As of June there are life peers. Like all other peers, life peers are created by the Sovereign, who acts on the advice of the Prime Minister or the House of Lords Appointments Commission. By convention, however, the Prime Minister allows leaders of other parties to nominate some life peers, so as to maintain a political balance in the House of Lords. Moreover, some non-party life peers the number being determined by the Prime Minister are nominated by the independent House of Lords Appointments Commission.

In , the government announced it would set up an Independent Appointments Commission, under Lord Stevenson of Coddenham , to select fifteen so-called " people's peers " for life peerages. However, when the choices were announced in April , from a list of 3, applicants, the choices were treated with criticism in the media, as all were distinguished in their field, and none were "ordinary people" as some had originally hoped.

Several different qualifications apply for membership of the House of Lords. No person may sit in the House of Lords if under the age of Additionally, some bankruptcy-related restrictions apply to members of the Upper House. A person may not sit in the House of Lords if he or she is the subject of a Bankruptcy Restrictions Order applicable in England and Wales only , or if he or she is adjudged bankrupt in Northern Ireland , or if his or her estate is sequestered in Scotland. A final restriction bars an individual convicted of high treason from sitting in the House of Lords until completing his or her full term of imprisonment.

Government Defeats in the House of Lords

An exception applies, however, if the individual convicted of high treason receives a full pardon. Note that an individual serving a prison sentence for an offence other than high treason is not automatically disqualified. Women were excluded from the House of Lords until the Life Peerages Act , [64] passed to address the declining number of active members, made possible the creation of peerages for life. Women were immediately eligible and four were among the first life peers appointed. However, hereditary peeresses continued to be excluded until the passage of the Peerage Act The Honours Prevention of Abuses Act [67] made it illegal for a peerage, or other honour, to be bought or sold.

Nonetheless, there have been repeated allegations that life peerages and thus membership of the House of Lords have been made available to major political donors in exchange for donations. The most prominent case, the Cash for Honours scandal, saw a police investigation, with no charges being brought. A study found that of people nominated for peerages in the period —14, a total of were former senior figures within politics including former MPs , or were non-political appointments.

Of the remaining 92 political appointments from outside public life, 27 had made significant donations to political parties. The authors concluded firstly that nominees from outside public life were much more likely to have made large gifts than peers nominated after prior political or public service. They also found that significant donors to parties were far more likely to be nominated for peerages than other party members.

Traditionally there was no mechanism by which members could resign or be removed from the House of Lords compare the situation as regards resignation from the House of Commons. The Peerage Act permitted a person to disclaim their newly inherited peerage within certain time limits ; this meant that such a person could effectively renounce their membership of the Lords. This might be done in order to remain or become qualified to sit in the House of Commons, as in the case of Tony Benn formerly the second Viscount Stansgate , who had campaigned for such a change.

The House of Lords Reform Act [69] made provision for members' resignation from the House, removal for non-attendance, and automatic expulsion upon conviction for a serious criminal offence if resulting in a jail sentence of at least one year. In June , under the House of Lords Expulsion and Suspension Act , [70] the House's Standing Orders may provide for the expulsion or suspension of a member upon a resolution of the House.

Traditionally the House of Lords did not elect its own speaker, unlike the House of Commons; rather, the ex officio presiding officer was the Lord Chancellor. With the passage of the Constitutional Reform Act , the post of Lord Speaker was created, a position to which a peer is elected by the House and subsequently appointed by the Crown. As the Speaker is expected to be an impartial presiding officer, Hayman resigned from the Labour Party.

This reform of the post of Lord Chancellor was made due to the perceived constitutional anomalies inherent in the role. The Lord Chancellor was not only the Speaker of the House of Lords, but also a member of the Cabinet; his or her department, formerly the Lord Chancellor's Department, is now called the Ministry of Justice. The Lord Chancellor is no longer the head of the judiciary of England and Wales. Hitherto, the Lord Chancellor was part of all three branches of government: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial.

The overlap of the legislative and executive roles is a characteristic of the Westminster system , as the entire cabinet consists of members of the House of Commons or the House of Lords; however, in June , the Blair Government announced its intention to abolish the post of Lord Chancellor because of the office's mixed executive and judicial responsibilities. The abolition of the office was rejected by the House of Lords, and the Constitutional Reform Act was thus amended to preserve the office of Lord Chancellor. The Act no longer guarantees that the office holder of Lord Chancellor is the presiding officer of the House of Lords, and therefore allows the House of Lords to elect a speaker of their own.

The Lord Speaker may be replaced as presiding officer by one of his or her deputies. The Chairman of Committees , the Principal Deputy Chairman of Committees, and several Chairmen are all deputies to the Lord Speaker, and are all appointed by the House of Lords itself at the beginning of each session. Whilst presiding over the House of Lords, the Lord Chancellor traditionally wore ceremonial black and gold robes.

Robes of black and gold are now worn by the Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice in the House of Commons, on ceremonial occasions. This is no longer a requirement for the Lord Speaker except for State occasions outside of the chamber. The Speaker or Deputy Speaker sits on the Woolsack , a large red seat stuffed with wool, at the front of the Lords Chamber.

When the House of Lords resolves itself into committee see below , the Chairman of Committees or a Deputy Chairman of Committees presides, not from the Woolsack, but from a chair at the Table of the House. The presiding officer has little power compared to the Speaker of the House of Commons. He or she only acts as the mouthpiece of the House, performing duties such as announcing the results of votes. The Lord Speaker or Deputy Speaker cannot determine which members may speak, or discipline members for violating the rules of the House; these measures may be taken only by the House itself.

Unlike the politically neutral Speaker of the House of Commons, the Lord Chancellor and Deputy Speakers originally remained members of their respective parties, and were permitted to participate in debate; however, this is no longer true of the new role of Lord Speaker. Another officer of the body is the Leader of the House of Lords, a peer selected by the Prime Minister.

The Leader of the House is responsible for steering Government bills through the House of Lords, and is a member of the Cabinet. The Leader also advises the House on proper procedure when necessary, but such advice is merely informal, rather than official and binding. A Deputy Leader is also appointed by the Prime Minister, and takes the place of an absent or unavailable leader. The Clerk of the Parliaments is the chief clerk and officer of the House of Lords but is not a member of the House itself.

The Clerk, who is appointed by the Crown, advises the presiding officer on the rules of the House, signs orders and official communications, endorses bills, and is the keeper of the official records of both Houses of Parliament. Moreover, the Clerk of the Parliaments is responsible for arranging by-elections of hereditary peers when necessary. The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod is also an officer of the House; he takes his title from the symbol of his office, a black rod. Black Rod as the Gentleman Usher is normally known is responsible for ceremonial arrangements, is in charge of the House's doorkeepers, and may upon the order of the House take action to end disorder or disturbance in the Chamber.

The Lords Chamber is lavishly decorated, in contrast with the more modestly furnished Commons Chamber. Benches in the Lords Chamber are coloured red. The Woolsack is at the front of the Chamber; the Government sit on benches on the right of the Woolsack, while members of the Opposition sit on the left.

Crossbenchers, sit on the benches immediately opposite the Woolsack. The Lords Chamber is the site of many formal ceremonies, the most famous of which is the State Opening of Parliament , held at the beginning of each new parliamentary session. During the State Opening, the Sovereign , seated on the Throne in the Lords Chamber and in the presence of both Houses of Parliament, delivers a speech outlining the Government's agenda for the upcoming parliamentary session.

In the House of Lords, members need not seek the recognition of the presiding officer before speaking, as is done in the House of Commons. If two or more Lords simultaneously rise to speak, the House decides which one is to be heard by acclamation, or, if necessary, by voting on a motion. Often, however, the Leader of the House will suggest an order, which is thereafter generally followed. Speeches in the House of Lords are addressed to the House as a whole "My Lords" rather than to the presiding officer alone as is the custom in the Lower House.

Members may not refer to each other in the second person as "you" , but rather use third person forms such as "the noble Duke", "the noble Earl", "the noble Lord", "my noble friend", "The most Reverend Primate", etc. Each member may make no more than one speech on a motion, except that the mover of the motion may make one speech at the beginning of the debate and another at the end. Speeches are not subject to any time limits in the House; however, the House may put an end to a speech by approving a motion "that the noble Lord be no longer heard".

It is also possible for the House to end the debate entirely, by approving a motion "that the Question be now put". This procedure is known as Closure , and is extremely rare. Once all speeches on a motion have concluded, or Closure invoked, the motion may be put to a vote. The House first votes by voice vote ; the Lord Speaker or Deputy Speaker puts the question, and the Lords respond either "content" in favour of the motion or "not content" against the motion. The presiding officer then announces the result of the voice vote, but if his assessment is challenged by any Lord, a recorded vote known as a division follows.

Members of the House enter one of two lobbies the content lobby or the not-content lobby on either side of the Chamber, where their names are recorded by clerks. At each lobby are two Tellers themselves members of the House who count the votes of the Lords. The Lord Speaker may not take part in the vote. Once the division concludes, the Tellers provide the results thereof to the presiding officer, who then announces them to the House. If there is an equality of votes, the motion is decided according to the following principles: legislation may proceed in its present form, unless there is a majority in favour of amending or rejecting it; any other motions are rejected, unless there is a majority in favour of approving it.

The quorum of the House of Lords is just three members for a general or procedural vote, and 30 members for a vote on legislation. If fewer than three or 30 members as appropriate are present, the division is invalid. By contrast with the House of Commons, the House of Lords has not until recently had an established procedure for putting sanctions on its members. When a cash for influence scandal was referred to the Committee of Privileges in January , the Leader of the House of Lords also asked the Privileges Committee to report on what sanctions the House had against its members.

Recent changes have expanded the disciplinary powers of the House. Section 3 of the House of Lords Reform Act now provides that any member of the House of Lords convicted of a crime and sentenced to imprisonment for more than one year loses their seat. The House of Lords Expulsion and Suspension Act allows the House to set up procedures to suspend, and to expel, its members. There are two motions which have grown up through custom and practice and which govern questionable conduct within the House.

They are brought into play by a member standing up, possibly intervening on another member, and moving the motion without notice. When the debate is getting excessively heated, it is open to a member to move "that the Standing Order on Asperity of Speech be read by the Clerk". The motion can be debated, [78] but if agreed by the House, the Clerk of the Parliaments will read out Standing Order 33 which provides "That all personal, sharp, or taxing speeches be forborn".

For more serious problems with an individual Lord, the option is available to move "That the noble Lord be no longer heard". This motion also is debatable, and the debate which ensues has sometimes offered a chance for the member whose conduct has brought it about to come to order so that the motion can be withdrawn. If the motion is passed, its effect is to prevent the member from continuing their speech on the motion then under debate. In , to counter criticism that some peers only appeared at major decisions in the House and thereby particular votes were swayed, the Standing Orders of the House of Lords were enhanced.

Unlike in the House of Commons, when the term committee is used to describe a stage of a bill, this committee does not take the form of a public bill committee , but what is described as Committee of the Whole House. It is made up of all Members of the House of Lords allowing any Member to contribute to debates if he or she chooses to do so and allows for more flexible rules of procedure.

It is presided over by the Chairman of Committees. The term committee is also used to describe Grand Committee, where the same rules of procedure apply as in the main chamber, except that no divisions may take place. For this reason, business that is discussed in Grand Committee is usually uncontroversial and likely to be agreed unanimously. Public bills may also be committed to pre-legislative committees.

A pre-legislative Committee is specifically constituted for a particular bill. These committees are established in advance of the bill being laid before either the House of Lords or the House of Commons and can take evidence from the public. Such committees are rare and do not replace any of the usual stages of a bill, including committee stage. The House of Lords also has 15 Select Committees.

Typically, these are sessional committees , meaning that their members are appointed by the House at the beginning of each session, and continue to serve until the next parliamentary session begins. In practice, these are often permanent committees, which are re-established during every session. These committees are typically empowered to make reports to the House "from time to time", that is, whenever they wish. Other committees are ad-hoc committees , which are set up to investigate a specific issue.

When they are set up by a motion in the House, the motion will set a deadline by which the Committee must report. After this date, the Committee will cease to exist unless it is granted an extension. Most of the Select Committees are also granted the power to co-opt members, such as the European Union Committee. The committee system of the House of Lords also includes several Domestic Committees, which supervise or consider the House's procedures and administration. One of the Domestic Committees is the Committee of Selection, which is responsible for assigning members to many of the House's other committees.

There are currently sitting members of the House of Lords. The House of Lords Act allocated 75 of the 92 hereditary peers to the parties based on the proportion of hereditary peers that belonged to that party in [62]. Fifteen hereditary peers are elected by the whole House, and the remaining hereditary peers are the two royal office-holders, the Earl Marshal and the Lord Great Chamberlain , both of whom are currently on leave of absence. A report in stated that many members of the Lords particularly the life peers do not attend regularly; the average daily attendance was around While the number of hereditary peers is limited to 92, and that of Lords spiritual to 26, there is no maximum limit to the number of life peers who may be members of the House of Lords at any time.

Each has an effective veto over parliament legislation exclusive to its respective region. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the United Kingdom House of Lords. For other uses, see House of Lords disambiguation. Upper house. Lord Speaker. The Lord Fowler since 1 September Senior Deputy Speaker. Shadow Leader. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Main article: Reform of the House of Lords. Main article: Lords Spiritual Women Act See also: Women in the House of Lords. Further information: Act of Parliament UK. Main article: Judicial functions of the House of Lords. Duke Duchess.

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Marquess Marchioness. Earl Countess. Viscount Viscountess. Baron Baroness. Hereditary Life Representative. Overview Privileges Robes. Main article: Lords Spiritual. Main article: Members of the House of Lords. Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 8 November Parliamentary Debates Hansard. House of Lords. May Retrieved 1 July Parliament Today 2nd ed. Retrieved 29 January BBC Democracy Live.

Parliament Act as amended see also enacted form , from legislation. Hart Publishing. Retrieved 24 May Retrieved 23 March Retrieved 9 April The Political Quarterly. HM Government. Retrieved 18 January Deputy Prime Minister. Perspectives from a Symposium at Trinity Hall, Cambridge. PoliticsHome Press release. Retrieved 23 November Parliament of the UK.

Retrieved 30 October British Historical Facts — London: The Macmillan Press Ltd. Retrieved 19 May BBC News. Retrieved 4 August The Guardian. The Times. BBC News Online. Retrieved 28 August Retrieved 25 March A History of Modern Britain: to the Present. London: The Stationery Office.

Retrieved 5 September Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 16 November Retrieved 19 August Retrieved 4 June Life Peerages Act as amended see also enacted form , from legislation. Peerage Act as amended see also enacted form , from legislation. House of Lords Act as amended see also enacted form , from legislation. Honours Prevention of Abuses Act as amended see also enacted form , from legislation.

A study in the link between party political funding and peerage nominations, —" , British Politics - first published online, 14 March House of Lords Reform Act as amended see also enacted form , from legislation. House of Lords Expulsion and Suspension Act as amended see also enacted form , from legislation. Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 21 May Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 5 June House of Lords, Committee for Privileges. October CIII p. CIV p.

CXVI p. Retrieved 7 October The Stationery Office. UK Parliament. Retrieved 22 May Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 April Retrieved 16 June Retrieved 21 June February Retrieved 25 May Carroll, Alex Constitutional and Administrative Law 4th ed. Pearson Longman.

Hayter, Paul Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Politics UK 6th ed. Pearson Education. Loveland, Ian Oxford University Press. Is there a market for peerages? To insert a clause requiring that a trade agreement with the EU should include a mobility framework that enables UK and EU citizens to exercise the same reciprocal rights to work, live and study for the purpose of the provision of trade in goods or services.

To insert a clause requiring that a trade agreement with the EU should not create customs arrangements between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland that include physical infrastructure related to, or a requirement for, customs checks or controls related to trade. To restrict the scope of regulations that can be made under the bill to the specific list of purposes listed in the bill, rather than leaving the list open, as the bill currently allows.

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To limit the scope of the bill, allowing the Secretary of State to only make reciprocal healthcare payment arrangements with countries in the EU and the European Economic Area, and not with countries in the rest of the world. To insert a clause requiring the government to take all necessary steps to implement an international trade agreement which enables the UK to participate in a customs union with the European Union after exit day To insert a clause requiring the government to take all necessary steps to implement an international trade agreement which enables the UK to participate in a customs union with the European Union after exit day.

To insert a clause setting out the role of parliament and of the devolved administrations in free trade negotiations, requiring approval by both houses for negotiating mandates, and specifying that trade agreements must be approved by resolution of both houses before ratification. To require responsible bodies, such as hospitals, to keep a record of decisions not to provide a copy of the authorisation of care to the cared-for person, and to require that reviews should be undertaken in cases where the copy was not provided within 72 hours.

To disagree with Commons amendment outlining the conditions under which a person is not considered to be deprived of liberty, and instead to propose a definition of deprivation of liberty in relation to confinement without valid consent. To call again on the government to ensure that the UK does not leave the EU without a deal, and that the House of Commons can vote, and the House of Lords can take note of, the withdrawal agreement before the end of February To call on the government to ensure that the UK does not leave the EU without a deal, and that sufficient time is provided for the House of Lords to consider legislation necessary to implement any deal that is supported by the House of Commons.

To move, as an amendment to the motion that the house resolves into committee, to require the government to present to both houses proposals for a process for the UK to make international agreements, including roles for parliament and the devolved legislatures and administrations, before the bill can move to report stage.

To urge that a 'no deal' Brexit should be rejected, and to express regret that withdrawal from the EU on the terms of the government's deal would damage the future economic prosperity, internal security and and global influence of the UK. To regret that the order introduces a probate fee described by the Secondary Legislation Scrutiny Committee as a stealth tax, and that it contravenes the principle that fees for a public service should only recover the cost of provision non-fatal. To require the Secretary of State to commission within 6 months an independent report on the government strategy for supporting people vulnerable to being drawn into terrorism, to lay the report before both Houses, and to respond to its recommendations.

To insert a clause specifying conditions, such as humanitarian aid or journalistic work, under which persons who enter an overseas area designated by the bill as linked to terrorist activity are not committing an offence under the bill. To specify requirements for the cared-for person to be informed of their rights prior to the authorisation of care arrangements that imply deprivation of liberty, to have access to advocacy services and to be able to request an assessment of arrangements.

To specify that care and treatment arrangements which imply deprivation of liberty should be necessary to prevent harm to the cared-for person, rather than just necessary and proportionate, as currently defined in the bill. To specify that, in any overseas exchange of electronic data under the bill, assurances must be obtained that the death penalty will not be applied in respect of any offence in which data provided from the UK contributed to securing the conviction.

Amendment Order To move to regret the early closing of the Renewables Obligation to small solar photovoltaic installations, noting the detrimental effect on solar energy schemes, and calling on the government to reinstate the Obligation. Coalition Split no Date Bill Subject. Provisions Bill To remove a clause that would allow the acceptance of political donations from anybody holding Irish citizenship outside of Northern Ireland.

Provisions To insert a clause introducing new scrutiny measures for Orders in Council: a draft must be laid before each House of Parliament for approval and may suggest and make amendments. If a police officer has reason to believe that a person or persons are carrying firearms he may arrange for the area to be sealed off and searched people and vehicles. Parliament on the Blog A case for publishing select committee legal advice 10th July Six constitutional questions raised by the election of the new Conservative leader 30th June Monitor Brexit and the changing logic of British politics 24th June Rethinking democracy: is our democracy fit for purpose?

Rethinking Democracy: three routes to majority government 11th June Brexit and the constitution: seven lessons 4th June The politics of publishing select committee legal advice 23rd May Transparency, trust and parliamentary expenses: lessons from the International Parliamentary Regulators Conference 16th May Follow us.

Brexit: Parliamentary approval of the outcome of negotiations with the European Union. To require the Gas and Electricity Markets Authority to develop a relative price cap for suppliers, setting the difference between the cheapest rate and the most expensive standard variable or default rate as a specified proportion of the cheapest rate. To insert a clause requiring the Secretary of State to propose primary legislation establishing a duty on public authorities to apply principles of EU environmental law after exit day, and to establish an independent public body to ensure compliance.

To insist to require the government to set up an inquiry into allegations of data protection breaches committed by or on behalf of news publishers, but to consider the separate legal context in Northern Ireland and Scotland and exclude local and regional publishers. To require ministers to state their justification if proposing the negative procedure for statutory instruments under certain clauses of the Bill, and to accept decisions of a committee reporting on the instrument, or of the House itself, that the affirmative procedure should apply instead.

To make it a condition of enactment that the government should adopt a negotiating objective to achieve an international agreement enabling the UK to continue to participate in the European Economic Area after exit day. To delete the provision in the bill that defines exit day as 11pm on 29 March , and to specify instead that exit day may be appointed through regulations.

To insert a clause specifying that no provision in the bill shall prevent the UK from replicating in domestic law any EU law made on or after exit day, or continuing to participate in, or have a formal relationship with, EU agencies after exit day. To insert a clause requiring ministers to observe the Northern Ireland Act and UK-EU agreement on the continuation of North-South co-operation when implementing this Act, and to place various limits on new border arrangements for Northern Ireland. To insert a clause requiring the government to preserve specified provisions of the EU Dublin Regulation, which allow persons seeking asylum, including unaccompanied minors, adults and children, to join a family member, sibling or relative in the UK.

To require that ministers should seek approval by Parliament of a mandate to negotiate the UK's future relationship with the EU. To insert a clause requiring parliamentary approval of the outcome of negotiations between the UK and the EU, and specifying the conditions under which the government must follow directions from Parliament in negotiating the UK's relationship with the EU.

To remove a provision that ministers could make regulations to prevent, remedy or mitigate deficiencies in retained EU law as they consider 'appropriate', and to specify instead that they may make such regulations where it is 'necessary'. To retain in domestic law the right to challenge a legal instrument retained from EU law on the grounds that it fails to comply with general principles of EU law.

To remove provisions enabling ministers, after the UK has left the European Union, to specify through regulations where the validity of retained EU law may be challenged in court.

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Paving amendment to specify that retained EU law regarding employment rights, equality, health and safety and environmental standards cannot be amended, repealed or revoked except by primary legislation or by secondary legislation subject to an enhanced scrutiny procedure. Paving amendment to require the government to report to both Houses by 31 October regarding the steps taken to negotiate continued participation of the UK in a customs union with the EU before the European Communities Act can be repealed.

To require the Secretary of State to produce and present before both Houses a report on trailer-related road accidents, and to make a recommendation on whether there should be a mandatory safety testing scheme for all trailers weighing more than kg. To regret the changes in entitlement to free school meals proposed through the regulations, and to call on the government not to implement the regulations until a full poverty impact assessment has been completed and considered by both Houses.

Paving amendment to require the government to produce and to present before parliament reports on nuclear safeguards and future arrangements with Euratom at the end of four successive reporting periods which will follow the passing of the Act.

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To insert a clause to require the government to suspend the UK's withdrawal from Euratom until either international agreements have been reached or the UK is allowed to continue under current arrangements if the agreements are not in place by 1 March To remove the ability of ministers to create criminal offences through regulations made under the bill regarding the detection, investigation or prevention of money laundering.

To remove the ability of ministers to create criminal offences through regulations made under the bill. To extend the issues that ministers must consider when making regulations under the bill that impose sanctions on designated persons or countries, to include promotion of conflict resolution, human rights, democracy and the rule of law.


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To insert a clause providing that courts must award costs against publishers that are not members of an approved regulator in data protection claims, unless satisfied that the claim could not have been resolved by arbitration provided by the regulator. To insert a clause to require the Secretary of State to establish within three months of the passing of the Act an inquiry into allegations of data protection breaches committed by, or on behalf of, news publishers.

To require the Information Commissioner to maintain a register of personal data of national significance that is controlled by public bodies, and to prepare a code of practice setting out practical guidance in relation to such data. To introduce a requirement for trustees or managers of pension schemes to ask members, when they request access to or transfer of their pension assets, if they have received information and guidance from the financial guidance body established by the bill.

To require the new financial guidance body to advise the Secretary of State on issues of consumer detriment in relation to cold calling regarding financial services and products, and to allow the Secretary of State to institute bans on cold calling. To add consumer protection to the functions of the financial guidance body established by the bill. To regret that the rules may act against the Aarhus Convention on access to justice in environmental matters that the cost of litigation should not be prohibitive, and may deter claimants from bringing meritorious environmental cases non-fatal motion.

To insist to ask that the government, in securing best value for the NHS in purchasing medical supplies, considers supporting the UK life sciences sector, and ensuring access for patients to new medicines and treatments approved by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. To insert a clause requiring persons who re-sell tickets for cultural, sporting or recreational events using secondary ticketing facilities to provide the ticket reference or booking number, as well as any conditions attached to the resale of the ticket.

To insert a clause to ensure that public service broadcasting channels are entitled to prominence on all TV viewing platforms and electronic programme guides, including connected and on-demand menus. To insert a clause to require the Secretary of State to set up an independent body titled the BBC Licence Fee Commission, which would make recommendations to the Secretary of State regarding the level of licence fee required to fund the BBC.

Oxford Public International Law: Pinochet Cases

To move to regret that the Social Security Personal Independence Payment Amendment Regulations are implemented without adequate scrutiny, and to ask the government to review their impact on people with mental health conditions within two years non-fatal motion. To insert a clause to include a duty that Ofsted takes into account the careers advice made available to students in carrying out inspections of further education colleges.

To insert a clause requiring the Secretary of State to make provisions to enable persons under the age of 20 undertaking an apprenticeship to be eligible for child benefits. To insert a clause requiring the Secretary of State to produce and to present to parliament a report regarding the effectiveness of the regulatory framework on internet pornography proposed in the bill within 18 months of it coming into force. To insert a clause requiring the Secretary of State to bring forward, subject to the approval of parliament, a code of practice regarding the responsibilities of social media platform providers to protect children and young people from online abuse.

To insert a clause requiring that students at UK universities are not counted as long term migrants, and that non-UK citizens holding offers to study or to work as academic staff are not subject to more restrictive immigration rules than currently apply. To allow appeals against a decision by the Office for Students to revoke degree-awarding powers on the grounds that the decision was wrong, rather than that it was based on error of fact, wrong in law, or unreasonable, as the bill states.


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To require the Office for Students to ensure, in granting degree-awarding powers to higher education providers, that providers have functioned to required standards for at least four years, or have the approval of the proposed Quality Assessment Committee. To insert a clause requiring the Secretary of State to introduce a scheme to provide information about the quality of education and teaching provided by higher education institutions, replacing the proposed scheme to give ratings to such institutions.

To require the Prime Minister to subject an agreement regarding the terms of the UK's withdrawal from, and future relationship with, the EU, to approval by both Houses of Parliament before the European Parliament votes on the agreement. To require higher education institutions to provide students with the opportunity to be added to the electoral register through the process of enrolling. To insert a clause to prevent the scheme in the bill for rating the quality and standards of higher education institutions from being used to set course fees, or the number of fee paying students, that higher education institutions can recruit.

To require the UK government to produce proposals within three months of giving notification of the intention of withdrawal from the EU to ensure that the rights of residence of citizens of EU or EEA countries legally resident in the UK are maintained. To require the Secretary of State to make regulations to remove building owners' currently existing rights to change the use of, or to demolish, drinking establishments without seeking planning permission.

To ensure that regulations made under the bill do not prevent local planning authorities from requiring pre-commencement conditions that are otherwise in conformity with the existing National Planning Policy Framework. To insert a clause to require telecommunication service providers to offer customers the opportunity to place a financial cap on their monthly bills upon entering a contract, and to switch mobile providers at no extra cost in accordance with OFCOM rules.

To place the universal service obligation for broadband on the face of the bill, specifying targets for broadband connections and services, and requiring the government to prioritise SMEs and rural areas and to ensure mobile network coverage across the UK. To insert a clause to require that the government, in securing best value for the NHS in purchasing medical supplies, considers supporting the UK life sciences sector, and ensuring access for patients to new medicines and treatments approved by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.

To insert a clause at the start of the bill to define universities as autonomous institutions, and to outline their roles as promoters of academic freedom and freedom of speech and their contribution to society through teaching and research. To insert a clause to require the Secretary of State to provide for a funder of last resort for cases where the Master Trust managing a pension scheme has insufficient funds to meet the costs of winding up the scheme and transferring the rights of members.

Paving amendment to allow members of the public to make complaints to the Parliamentary Ombudsman about lack of observance by the police of the Code of Practice for Victims of Crime, and to allow the Parliamentary Ombudsman to conduct investigations. To increase the maximum sentence for stalking offences from 5 to 10 years. To insert a clause to require police and crime commissioners to make recommendations to the Secretary of State as to whether bereaved families at inquests involving the police require financial support, in order to ensure parity of legal funding.

To insert a clause to require the Prime Minister to commission an independent inquiry into the operation of the police complaints system with respect to allegations of corrupt relationships between the police and newspaper organisations. To remove a clause enabling the Secretary of State to exempt local authorities in England from children's social care legislation requirements in order to allow them to test different ways of working to provide children's social care.

To insist to allow victims of unlawful interceptions to claim costs against publishers that are not members of approved regulators, but to relate this to a new clause defining civil liability for unlawful interceptions of public communication networks. To define civil liability related to unlawful interceptions of communications, allowing victims of unlawful interceptions of both private and public communication networks to claim costs against publishers that are not members of approved regulators. To remove a clause that would prevent local authorities in England from forming companies with the purpose of providing local transport services.

To allow all categories of local authorities other than combined mayoral authorities to opt for franchising schemes for buses without seeking permission from the Secretary of State, as the bill currently provides. To require local authorities that propose a transport partnership scheme termed 'advanced quality partnership' under the bill to give notice to the representatives of any affected employees. To require local authorities that enter into a transport partnership scheme to impose the low carbon emissions standards provided by the Office for Low Emission Vehicles on all new buses that deliver local services.

To allow local authorities that enter into a transport partnership scheme termed 'advanced quality partnership' under the bill to apply to the Secretary of State for additional powers to enforce moving traffic offences. Paving amendment to define civil liability related to unlawful interceptions of communications, allowing victims of unlawful interceptions to claim costs against publishers that are not members of approved regulators.

To insist for the second time that local authorities can make a case to the Secretary of State to retain and spend payments from selling social housing, to cover in each case at least one affordable home outside London, or at least two in London. To insist on previous amendment to require sustainable drainage systems to be implemented in all new developments, ending the right to connect to existing conventional drainage, and extending current provisions which exclude small-scale developments.

To insist to enable parish councils and neighbourhood forums to appeal against the granting of planning permission by local authorities for housing developments that conflict with existing neighbourhood plans, but conceding not to include emerging plans. To insist to allow local authorities to retain and spend payments from selling social housing on building similar properties, but accepting that agreement must first be reached with the Secretary of State regarding the need for such replacements. To insist to enable local authorities to decide planning developments based on local need, accepting that the Secretary of State may require provision of starter homes, but allowing them to comply by providing alternative affordable home ownership options.

To increase the measure of the level of household income for the purpose of defining high income local authority tenants every three years to reflect increases in the Consumer Price Index, rather than by referring to income thresholds as provided. To allow local authorities to spend payments from selling social housing properties on building similar properties for rent purposes, provided that need is demonstrated, rather than transferring payments to the Secretary of State as provided in the bill. To insist that the Secretary of State shall be required to arrange to relocate to the UK and support unaccompanied refugee children from Europe, but to specify that the number of children shall be determined in consultation with local authorities.

To insist that detention of pregnant women in immigration cases should apply only in the most exceptional circumstances, agreeing to the time limit of 72 hours, or up to 7 days days if detention is authorised by a minister, as proposed by the House of Commons. To insist on previous amendment to limit the period of detention in immigration removal centres without judicial oversight to a maximum of 28 days, or 28 days in aggregate, with possible extension by a court in exceptional circumstances. To insist that new renewables obligation certificates may be issued after the current termination date of 31 March for onshore wind generating stations that had received planning permission for up to three months after 18 June To insert a clause to require sustainable drainage systems to be implemented in all new developments, consequently ending the right to connect to existing conventional drainage, and extending current provisions which exclude small-scale developments.

To insert a clause to provide that local planning authorities may require small-scale developments and developments in rural areas to make affordable housing contributions, rather than leaving such requirements to be determined by regulations. To provide that planning permission in principle should apply specifically to housing led development, rather than to general development of land, as the bill currently allows. To insert a clause to enable parish councils and neighbourhood forums to appeal to the Secretary of State against the granting of planning permission by local authorities for housing developments that conflict with made or advanced neighbourhood plans.

To introduce a limit to the rate by which rent for high income local authority tenants can be increased, specifying that the rent shall not equate to more than 10 pence for each pound of a tenant's income above the minimum income threshold. To allow local housing authorities in England to decide whether or not to charge an increased level of rent for high income tenants of social housing, rather than requiring them to do so. To require that determinations by the Secretary of State provided in the bill regarding payments made by local housing authorities in England should be made by regulation, and consequently subject to approval by parliament.

To provide that new onshore wind development certificates may be issued after the currently proposed termination date of 31 March if planning permission for wind generating stations or for additional capacity was given on or before 18 June To introduce an absolute exclusion from detention for pregnant women in immigration cases, rather than a presumptive exclusion, as the law currently allows. To allow planning authorities in England to decide on the provision of starter homes in residential developments based on their assessment of local housing need, removing the Secretary of State's power to make regulations on the matter.

To insert a clause to require the Secretary of State to make arrangements to relocate to the UK and support unaccompanied refugee children from other countries in Europe, in addition to the resettlement under the Vulnerable Persons Relocation Scheme. To move to regret the early closing of the Renewables Obligation to small solar photovoltaic installations, noting the detrimental effect on solar energy schemes, and calling on the government to reinstate the Obligation. To remove a clause conferring the Secretary of State reserved powers to restrict facility time arrangements for trade union officials in public sector bodies.

To provide that trade unions with political funds ask new members upon joining whether they wish to contribute to the political fund. To insert a clause requiring the Secretary of State to commission an independent review on electronic balloting for strike action, and subsequently to present before each House of Parliament a strategy for the introduction of electronic balloting. To insert a clause to limit the period of detention in immigration removal centres without judicial oversight to a maximum of 28 days, or 28 days in aggregate, with possible extension by a court in exceptional circumstances.

To insert a clause to make provisions and to define the conditions for leave to remain to be granted to overseas domestic workers, allowing workers to change employers without losing their 'leave to remain' status. To insert a clause to require the Secretary of State to grant asylum seekers permission to take up employment if a decision has not been made on their asylum application within six months.

To insist to not remove the work-related activity component of the Employment and Support Allowance, but requiring only a delay until the Secretary of State has presented an impact assessment report before both Houses. To remove a clause amending the Welfare Reform Act to remove the work-related activity group component of the employment and support allowance.

To insert a clause requiring that the Secretary of State must lay before each House of Parliament an annual report on child poverty based on measures of family income. To move that a select committee should be appointed to consider the clauses in the Trade Union Bill regarding political funds, and that the committee should report by 29 February. To insert a clause to require pub-owning businesses to offer a market rent only option to tied pub tenants, and to introduce rent assessments for tenants.

To insert a clause requiring that the environmental objectives of the Green Investment Bank are specified in the company's articles of association, and ensuring that the articles require its directors to act and review their actions against the objectives. To insert a clause to allow 16 and 17 year-olds to vote in the EU referendum.

To insert an amendment to the motion to annul the Electoral Registration and Administration Act Transitional Provisions Order , adding that the motion should be annulled because it goes against the advice of the Electoral Commission. To decline to consider the draft Regulations until the government reports a scheme for transitional protection for current low-income recipients of tax credits, responds to the analysis by the Institute for Fiscal Studies, and considers mitigating action.

To decline to consider the draft Regulations until the government presents a report detailing their response to the analysis of the draft Regulations produced by the Institute for Fiscal Studies, and considering mitigating action. To insert a clause to prevent carbon units deriving from the operation of the EU Emissions Trading System from contributing to the UK's carbon emissions target after 31 December To remove the clause providing for the closure of the renewables obligation subsidies for onshore wind generating stations.

To insert a clause to extend the remit of the Oil and Gas Authority to include overseeing the decommissioning of oil and gas infrastructure and securing the infrastructure for the transportation and storage of greenhouse gases. To move to regret that the Prosecution of Offences Act Criminal Courts Charge Regulations impose a rigid structure of court charges, and were presented to parliament before dissolution, allowing little time for scrutiny non-fatal motion.

To require that any statutory instruments under the bill should be approved by resolution in both Houses. To require that regulations under the bill should ensure flexible childcare for parents working outside the hours of 9am to 5pm Monday to Friday, and to ensure that childcare is made available during school holidays. To insert a clause requiring the government to produce a review of the free childcare entitlement funding system before the bill is enacted. To prevent the transfer of regulatory functions for the health service to devolved bodies.

To move that a joint committee be appointed to produce a report on the constitutional implications of the government's revised proposals on English Votes for English Laws by 30 March To insert a clause ensuring that charities are able to dispose of their assets in a way that is consistent with their charitable purposes. To insert a clause enabling referendums to undo change to city governance arrangements. To insert a clause lowering the age for voting in local government elections from 18 to To make supplying new psychoactive substances in prisons an aggravating offence.

To move that there be a delay to the enactment of the 'waiting days' amendment to universal credit regulations until universal credit has been fully rolled out. To prevent the Secretary of State from making the creation of a directly elected mayor of a combined authority a condition for the transfer of power to that authority.

To insert a clause requiring a minister introducing a bill to make a 'devolution statement' declaring the compatibility of the legislation with the principle of devolution to the local level. To insert a clause requiring the Secretary of State to produce an annual report on devolution within England.

To insert a clause giving greater protection to overseas domestic workers, in particular allowing such workers to change employer. To ensure that any regulations made towards decriminalising TV licence-fee evasion shall not take effect before 1 April To insist on original defeat giving judges the power of discretion in relation to the financing of applications for judicial review.

To insist on original defeat giving judges the discretion to hear judicial review applications where the interests of the applicant have not been harmed by government conduct, but with the requirement that such discretion be in the public interest. To insist on previous amendment to prevent any female, or male under the age of fifteen, being placed in a secure college. To insert a clause requiring secondary ticketing operators to be more transparent, including the provision of information concerning the name of the seller, the face value of the ticket, any age restrictions on the ticket, and details of the seat location.

To give judges the discretion, in judicial review proceedings, over whether: 'to order an intervener to pay the costs of a relevant party to the proceedings', and 'to order a relevant party to the proceedings to pay the intervener's costs'. To give judges the discretion to hear judicial review applications in cases where the applicant has failed to provide the financial information required.

To give judges the discretion to hear judicial review applications in cases where the interests of the applicant can be shown to have not been harmed by the government conduct in question. To prevent any female, or male under the age of fifteen, being placed in a secure college. To regret the Prime Minister's decision to 'diminish the standing of the House' by not making the Leader of the House of Lords a full member of the cabinet and ask that he 'reconsiders this decision'.

To insert a clause establishing a joint committee on the question of whether the Home Secretary should be able to remove an individual's citizenship, if obtained by naturalisation, for reasons of the public good, even if this meant they would be stateless. To insert a clause insuring that potential child victims of trafficking are appointed an independent guardian to look after their interests.

To enable the regulations to allow an individual to aggregate their income from two or more jobs within a year, in order to qualify for a state pension. To insert a clause enabling the Secretary of State to make it illegal for drivers to fail to prevent smoking in cars carrying children. To change the definition of a miscarriage of justice, for the purposes of compensation, to a situation in which a newly discovered fact would make a conviction impossible, rather than proving the innocence of the wrongly-convicted person.

To exclude all activity that doesn't directly target electors from the constituency spending limits imposed on third parties during election campaigns. To exclude staffing costs from the financial restrictions placed on third parties i. To include the lobbying of special advisers within the regulations. To maintain the existing definition of anti-social behaviour and prevent it being widened to conduct that is 'capable of causing nuisance or annoyance to any person'.

To clarify that 'involvement' of each parent in the child's life refers to involvement that specifically 'promotes the welfare of the child', and does not refer to 'any particular division of a child's time'. To insert a clause introducing a licensing system for senior bankers. To ensure that the emissions limit duty applies to those fossil fuel plants that upgrade their systems to stay within the laws relating to pollution. To insert a clause that would ensure that all providers of care are understood to be carrying out a public function and therefore covered by the Human Rights Act To insert a clause to prevent any "alteration or reform" being made to the "structure" of the probation service unless the plans are approved by both houses of parliament.

To commit the entire Bill to a committee of the whole House, rather than splitting it between the Chamber and Grand Committee. To insert a clause requiring that an independent review of all council tax reduction schemes be implemented by the Secretary of State within three years of the Act coming into place. To enable judges and both parties, rather than the state only, to order a closed material procedure. To introduce judicial discretion rather than obligation in the ordering of closed material procedures where national security is considered to be involved. To require that the court be satisfied when ordering a closed material procedure that the harm to national security caused by disclosure of material outweighs the public interest in fair and open justice.

To remove a clause which empowers the Secretary of State, by order, to confer, remove or modify the National Crime Agency's counter-terrorism functions. To insert a clause repealing the offence of use of insulting words that are likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress.

To insert a clause making bailiffs and enforcement agents subject to the same regulation and legal status as other authorised bodies under the Legal Services Act To require that probation trusts make appropriate provisions for female offenders, including unpaid work and behavioural change programmes. To insert a clause establishing a Defamation Recognition Commission. To insert a clause allowing profit-making organisations to sue for defamation only where they can prove that it has caused or is likely to cause substantial financial loss, and barring public bodies from taking any defamation action.

To include the Defence Fire and Rescue Service under the category of fire and rescue services generally, so that they are no longer subject to the separate Ministry of Defence retirement age and pension scheme. To move to call on the government to use restraint in recommending new appointments to the House of Lords; to allow members to retire permanently; to exclude members who do not attend during a session; and to not allow members convicted of serious offences to attend sittings.

To reinstate Section 3 of the Equalities Act , which requires the EHRC to discharge its functions "with a view to encouraging and supporting the development of a society" which respects human rights and equal opportunities. To insert a clause adding 'caste' to the list of characteristics covered by the term 'race' in the Equalities Act To reinstate civil liability in breaches of duty of health and safety regulations. To insert a clause to require that letting and block management agents belong to an ombudsman scheme.

To insert a new clause to make orders for extension to planning permission made after 1 January subject to local authority approval. To regret that the government is excluding even the limited provision of legal aid services for first tier tribunal cases, such a provision having been judged by the Lords' fatal motion of 3 December to be inadequate non-fatal motion. To regret that the regulations fail to deliver sufficient access to legal aid for disabled people, and that "exempted person" is defined too narrowly non-fatal motion. To insist on reinstatement of Section 3 of the Equalities Act , which requires the EHRC to discharge its functions "with a view to encouraging and supporting the development of a society" which respects human rights and equal opportunities.

To insist on insertion of a clause adding 'caste' to the list of characteristics covered by the term 'race' in the Equalities Act To insert a clause requiring the boundary commissions to submit their reports not before October , rather than before October Local Government Bill [HL]. House of Lords Reform. To call on the government to table motions before the summer recess to a allow members to retire, b abolish by-elections for hereditary peers, c remove members convicted of serious criminal offences, d create a statutory appointments commission.

Academies Bill [HL]. To add spending on academy pupils with low-incidence special educational needs or disabilities to the list of planned expenditure for LEAs, and to allow the Secretary of State to intervene if local authorities fail to make satisfactory provision. Identity Documents Bill. Public Bodies Bill [HL]. Paving amendment to allow for a new clause which places restrictions on ministerial powers to abolish or modify public bodies by delegated legislation, including requirements to protect judicial independence and human rights.

Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Bill. To allow the referendum on the voting system to be held on any day before the 31 October , rather than requiring it to be held on the 5 May To remove the Chief Coroner from the list of offices and bodies scheduled for possible abolition. To prevent the Isle of Wight having to share a constituency with the mainland, and to exempt it from the 5 per cent variation rule.

To make the result of the referendum on the voting system non-binding if less than 40 per cent of the electorate vote in it. To allow the number of voters in new constituencies to deviate up to 7. To insist to make the result of the referendum on the voting system non-binding if less than 40 per cent of the electorate vote in it. To remove the Youth Justice Commission for England and Wales from the list of bodies scheduled for possible abolition. To add the Administrative Justice and Tribunals Council to the list of bodies scheduled for possible merger with other bodies while leaving it on the list for possible abolition.

Fixed-term Parliaments Bill. To retain the provision which sets a date of for the next general election, but to require a resolution of both Houses of Parliament before the length of each subsequent parliament is set at five years. Police Reform and Social Responsibility Bill. To remove the provision establishing police and crime commissioners for each police area outside London. European Union Bill. To remove the requirement for a referendum to be held before certain powers could be transferred from the UK to the EU, leading to amendments requiring a referendum only on a single military force, bringing the UK into Schengen, or joining the euro.

To clarify that applicable EU law is recognised as law in the UK specifically by virtue of the European Communities Act , rather than more generally by any Act of Parliament. To introduce a "sunset clause" to make the requirement for a referendum to be held before certain powers can be transferred from the UK to the EU expire after the next general election, and to require parliamentary approval of any order to renew this. To insist on amendments which set a date of for the next general election, but which require a resolution of both Houses of Parliament before the length of each subsequent parliament is set at five years.

Armed Forces Bill. To require the annual covenant report on the impact of membership of the armed forces on service people to cover the operation of inquests as well as the subjects of healthcare, housing and education. To insert a clause permitting current or former members of the armed forces to wear medals awarded by Commonwealth governments including the Pingat Jasa Malaysia medal without restriction.

Health and Social Care Bill. To insert a clause requiring the Secretary of State to report to parliament on the VAT treatment of supplies by charities providing health care services for the NHS. Welfare Reform Bill. Paving amendment to prevent the government making regulations to impose the underoccupancy penalty on social housing tenants with no more than one spare bedroom.

Paving amendment to include severely disabled young people who qualify for the support group in those entitled to contributory employment support for one year. To replace the month limit for contributory employment support claims by those in the work-related activity group with a prescribed period of at least two years. To exempt from the month limit on contributory employment support claims those receiving cancer treatment and those unable to work as a result of cancer diagnosis, and to grant those people support until they are able to work.

To exclude child benefit from the cap on welfare benefits which is enforced when a single person's or a couple's entitlements exceed the prescribed amount. To ensure that where a parent with care has shown that a maintenance agreement is either impossible or inappropriate, they will not be liable to pay fees to the Child Maintenance and Enforcement Commission for intervening.

Welfare Reform Bil l. To require that the lower rate of additional universal credit allowance for disabled children is no less than two-thirds of the higher rate. Protection of Freedoms Bill. To ensure that powers of entry into property are only exercised upon agreement with the premises occupier or where there is a warrant. To require that the Secretary of State's duty to promote the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of illness be defined as pertaining to both mental and physical illness.

To require the Lord Chancellor to ensure that individuals have access to legal services that effectively meet their needs, subject to available resources.