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Mariano Lecina 12 collaborated in the publication of these works. Astrain was able to publish the seven volumes of the monumental History of the Society of Jesus in the Assistency of Spain —25 , which is the paradigm for the genre. Castillo was unable to carry out his work successfully, due to poor health and a premature death. Astrain is the prototype of Jesuit historians of the first period. He did not have training in history, which he had to make up for at first by his own reading and later with the methodological guidelines that Franz Ehrle — gave him.
The superior general followed the work of the historian very closely. In a letter to Astrain, we find the historiographical norms that guided Jesuit historians of that first generation. In all true portraits there is light and shadow, praiseworthy things and imperfections that must be noted, since in this world nothing is perfect and complete. In any case, it has been necessary to distinguish opinions from facts.
Few Jesuit historians have enjoyed such resources as Astrain. He had at his disposition copyists, scribes, and archivists. But it is also an edifying one, to teach and delight the communities during their meals. Under the mantle of the historian were often hidden the abilities of the old professor of rhetoric. The agreeableness of his style and the defense of the Society were cause for apologetic exaggerations, impassioned opinions, and biased interpretations, shortcomings which Torre had already criticized. The work reflects the difficulties of the restored Society in the nineteenth century.
The past is studied with scholarly assumptions of modern historiography, based on the documents; but at the same time, historical events are cloaked in laudatory or defensive opinions as a response to the anticlericalism of the time. It was the work of a lifetime, without prior models, that presented a unitary vision of the Society in Spain, in all its glory. The most accomplished chapters are the first, dedicated to Ignatius republished in and those that are dedicated to the missions in Paraguay. Among the historians who were hostile to Ignatius and his work were the orator Emilio Castelar —99 and the ex-Jesuit Miguel Mir — Other historians of the first generation wrote worthwhile works about the old Society.
The two works were for many years the best research on the expulsion, exile, and restoration of the Society. The restored Society was much less studied in the early period. It was a complicated time and the sources were few, but the primary challenge was the poor health of Castillo, who died in A volume dedicated to the missions in the Americas, the Philippines, and Fernando Po remained unpublished.
This manual detail necessary information and procedures to become familiar
The facts that he narrates are solidly documented. These commemorative books contain interesting photographs. The same can be said of the anniversaries of the College of Valencia and of the Seminary of Comillas. Historians of the Society continued to be Jesuits, but their profile showed some differences from the previous generation. The new historians were not self-taught, but rather professionals. The most prominent were specialists who had studied history in universities, sometimes abroad.
Many were professors who mixed their teaching work with their historiographical work in accordance with scientific methodology. This gave them a broad-minded approach to their work, which was not limited exclusively to Jesuit history. Some writers belonged to the Historical Institute in Rome, established in , and worked on the Monumenta. The professors or researchers of the second period were born at the end of the nineteenth century or the beginning of the twentieth. Most of them suffered exile when they were students, during the Second Republic — Their intellectual maturity occurred in the middle of the Francisco Franco years — They published their main works during those years, though some were still working at the end of the twentieth century, overlapping with the following generation.
Among the historians of this period, two figures are notable, who in a way frame both the beginning and the end of the period: Pedro de Leturia — and Miguel Batllori — Monographic themes predominate in the works of these authors. The old Society continued to be the preferred one, beginning with Ignatius and concluding with the cultural work of exiled Jesuits of the eighteenth century. Leturia served as a bridge between the two generations. He was able to bring together leadership and study.
In , he founded the periodical Archivum historicum Societatis Iesu. He was the director of Monumenta for sixteen years —48 and initiated the new series Monumenta Missionum about the missionary ventures in the Orient and Spanish America. His monograph on the youth of Ignatius was decisive in learning about the founder. The Ignatian studies begun by Leturia were continued from different perspectives. Ignacio Iparraguirre —73 , the great specialist in the Spiritual Exercises , dedicated a fundamental work to the practice of these from the time of Ignatius until the seventeenth century.
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The biographies of Ignatius and of Borja are models of clarity and precision. There was no shortage of good historical monographs on the missions and the educational system. His grand work was the editing of seven volumes of the Monumenta Peruana, which cover the years to He was a historian of all the periods of Spanish culture and as a consequence, all the centuries of the Society. He was a man of brilliant conversation, with an open spirit always ready to help novice historians. He was the director for many years of the Jesuit Institute in Rome and of the periodical Archivum historicum S.
In , he was named a member of the Royal Academy of History. He assiduously attended historical conferences and received numerous honors, among which are nineteen doctorates honoris causa. His collaboration with the project occupied the last ten years of his life.
His research into the exiled Jesuits of the eighteenth century expanded the scope of the Spanish Enlightenment 52 and outlined the possible influences of American Jesuits in the emancipation of their lands. In contrast with the attention given to the old Society, the historians of the second historiographical period focused very little on the restored Society. Biographies are the most common genre.
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It is necessary to point out again Batllori, the author of a biography of Ignasi Casanovas — 54 and similarities to other Jesuits Mir, Ehrle, Guillem Vives [—], 55 and Leturia. Jesuit historiography from the s presents a few novelties: 1 The end of Jesuit exclusivism. In Spain, as in other countries, there are a good number of non-Jesuit historians dedicated to the history of the Society.
The historical importance of the Jesuits in the political, cultural, and religious spheres has generated an academic recognition which has manifested in publications, doctoral theses, and research teams at some universities and civil institutions. Without neglecting the former Society, which continues to be a preferred focus, the study of the restored Society has been cultivated, to which unknown importance was previously given.
It is a work of impartial specialists who work with primary sources without falling prey to either apologetics or hostilities.
I shall make a brief commentary on these two characteristics. The formation of groups or teams has occurred predominantly in institutions not dependent on the Society. The results of these investigations have been admiral: six doctoral theses, three co-authored books, twelve individual books, eleven text editions with introductory studies which cite them, and two congresses. Andalusia being the bridge to America, it is not surprising that this topic has been cultivated there.
In Madrid, specialists have worked in three universities. At the Comillas University, there are courses offered on Ignatian spirituality, as well as historical studies. At the international congress celebrated in Madrid June 20—22, , specialists from fifty-four universities in fifteen countries attended. In the Basque Country, there are various focal points which have contributed in diverse ways to historical knowledge: cycles of conferences in the University of Deusto, 63 publications by the editorial house Mensajero, and the activities of the Instituto Ignacio de Loyola, founded by Juan Plazaola — , which since has published almanacs on the founder of the Society, often considered from historical perspectives.
In the last thirty years, the history of the old Society has been enriched by new topics and perspectives. New biographies of Ignatius have been written 69 as well as valuable studies of his cultural environment. These and other contributions have been reviewed in their own countries. In recent years, much attention has been given to the expulsion of the Jesuits by Charles III, and the cultural work of those exiled, which had been initiated by Batllori. To the publication of sources as important as those indicated above, one must add an immense bibliography, which sheds much light on a previously little-known topic.
The scholars at the University of Alicante have published important individual or collective books. The historiography of the restored Society has been enriched by the publication of a singularly valuable source: the Memorias del P. They are decisive years, for it was then that the Society in Spain was consolidated around the houses and stable works that have remained until today.
The first two volumes deal with the foundation of the houses and institutions and the internal and external conflicts. The third volume deals with the activities of the Jesuits ministries of the word, secular associations, and social apostolates extending to Complementing this volume is the one dedicated to educational activity. In recent years, the study of the restored Society has progressed in quantity, quality, and variety.
The most researched topics have been the following: 1 The first restoration of , on the occasion of the bicentennial. The assessment of Spanish Jesuit historiography is generally satisfactory. In the three historiographical periods a progression is observed. In the second period, good monographs appear which, like the documents, are almost exclusively limited to the first three centuries.
Database Management Activation In the event there is no active database which contains no useful settings available a previous or external database can be activated by the following: Step 1.
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Navigate to File and select the Activate Database menu item. A browser window will then open. Use the browser to navigate to the location and select the required database file. To activate an external database, the required database needs to have been created previously, If this is not the case then the previous database may have been unintentionally deleted or no settings have been saved previously. Database Export To copy the database to an external location the following steps should be followed: Step 1. Create the database in the external location by clicking the browse button next to the empty red Database B field and browse to an existing located database file or create a new file click ok.
A popup may occur asking to create the database file if it doesnt already exist, select OK. Highlight the necessary settings within the current database and select the arrow pointing to the other database location, the operation of the arrow is dependent upon the selection of the Copy or Move toggles below. Management The management of individual settings can be conducted through the following window, accessed by navigating to file and select Database Manager or selecting the associated button , doing so will open the following, select the active tab to access the copy options.
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This window allows for individual settings to be renamed, duplicated to external files or deleted by operation of the associated buttons. This also offers the mechanism to import or export settings to and from text based files for configuration analysis without the use of the AcSELerator Quickset Environment.
Figure 7 shows the HMI device overview for the SEL relay including the available windows and illustrates the structure of the HMI itself from navigation menu left and interface window right. Commands The following commands are common to most of the relays in the SEL Protection and Monitoring System and are used within the command window. Specific command options and their function are detailed in the instruction manuals for each of the specific relay. Function Request access level 2 Request access level 1 Test an analog output Display Breaker monitor data Close Breaker display recent event monitoring data Change active settings group Display an event history Display metering data Open Breaker Pulse a digital output Exit to Level 0 display or clear relay status display recent event summary data Display internal binary variable values.
Read Free For 30 Days. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Figure 1 - Initial Program Start-up window with identifiers A. Select the Open Saved Settings button and the relay will display all the available saved settings within the current active database, example shown below.
Navigate to file and select Database Manager or selecting the associated button , doing so will open the following, select the active tab to access the copy options. Shoaib Quraishi.
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