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Atti del congresso Genova-Bogliasco aprile , Genua, , Urso ed. Elogio, comunicazione, creazione del consenso. Atti del Convegno internazionale di Cividale del Friuli, settembre , Pisa, , IX 13,2 e Venanzio Fortunato carm. I lavori del progetto Musisque Deoque , Venezia giugno , Amsterdam, , Gibson, Roy K.

Pliny, Epistles 1. Balansard et al. Mathisen, Ralph W. Camastra, Palma, Letteratura latina tardoantica , Bari: Edipuglia, Sidonius features on pp. Da una lettera Ep. Actes du IXe colloque international sur le latin vulgaire et tardif, Lyon, septembre , Lyon, , Fusi, Alessandro, et al. Papanghelis et al. The same generic mobility can be observed also in the case of collections of letters.

Since early modern times, editors of ancient collections of letters have been engaged in an informal project of re-ordering these collections along chronological lines. The result has been the gradual transformation of ancient collections into works of history and autobiography where chronological ordering is a distinctive generic marker in these genres in their modern forms. This chapter focuses on the ideological and historical contexts and motivations for modern and early-modern editorial intervention in the genre of Latin letter collections.

Many ancient letter collections have been rearranged by modern editors along chronological lines, apparently with the aim of realizing the biographical and historiographical potential of these ancient collections. In their original format, however, non-fictional Greco-Roman letter collections were arranged predominantly by addressee or by theme often without the preservation of chronology within addressee or thematic groupings , or they might be arranged on the principle of artful variety and significant juxtaposition.

Consequently, some purpose or purposes other than biographical or historical narration must be attributed to ancient letter collections. This paper asks what those purposes might be. A short discussion of this career follows, including a reference to the panegyric of Euric in Ep. IV-VI d. Extra coll. Probably, only Ep. Carmi 1 e 2. Praefatio e Panegirico per Antemio. Perrin eds , La lyre et la pourpre. Santelia, Stefania, Sidonio Apollinare. Carme 16, Eucharisticon ad Faustum episcopum. Introduzione, traduzione e commento , Cacucci Editore: Bari, Castellanos, Santiago, En el final de Roma ca.

Chapot-Blanquet, Maguy ed. Dewar, Michael, Leisured Resistance. Gerth, Matthias, Bildungsvorstellungen im 5. Jahrhundert n. Gibson and Roger D. Rees eds , Pliny in Late Antiquity , Arethusa 46 Geburtstag , Berlin, , From the Visigoths to the Arabs , Farnham Arnold, Ellen F. Thomas and Jan M. Eschenbach Halle, The Middle English form blihand also means material, as is shown by Murray, s.

He notes the appearance also in old Swedish of blyanl in conjunction with baldakine as a material. Paris, , I, p. The form with ending ant is also found in O. Du Cange's statement, s. Winter, p. Still another example is furnished by Gaston Paris himself in an article [ 52 ] on the meaning and origin of the word osterin. He quotes the following passage from an unpublished ms. Gaston Paris interprets drap as referring to osterin , which he considers a noun ; but as osterin is frequently an adjective in our period in Old French [ 54 ] it is reasonable to consider that it is such here, and that the description un drap estrange refers to bliaut.

This definition of bliaut is not given by Tobler, possibly on account of the paucity of examples known to him, but others can be quoted to support this sense :. The costly, highly prized materials which were frequently imported from the Orient are often mentioned :. In expressions such as these, we immediately identify samit, porpre or diapre with some conception of cloth which we already have, and would not think any of them to be a certain style of dress.

When we find then in Folque de Candie ,. The fact that the place of origin is mentioned is additional evidence that a material is meant, rather than a gown, for this is frequently given in the case of other materials. I,, ; Esc. They were generally cut to measure and fitted after importation. Introduction , p. Langlois, Table des noms propres Paris, , s. Otherwise we hear only of drap de Frise , according to Langlois. The transition from the material of which the garment was made to the garment itself, by extension, is not uncommon.

It occurs in other cases, as bonet , a material, Floov. The reverse process has taken place with pallium , a mantle, becoming a costly material, paile. The extension of meaning of bliaut from material to garment does not appear to have taken place in Germany, though a closer investigation of Germanic sources would be necessary to ascertain this definitely. This double use is reflected in England, cf. Murray, s.

H, which was used in the text in Warnke's edition of Marie , has been changed in the and editions to blialz. The form bliant is also found in Eracles II Description of the bliaut as the court dress [ 56 ] of a lady of rank are frequent in the texts. Enough details may be noted for us to be able, with the help of the illustrations to which the details correspond, to reconstruct a typical bliaut. Some of the details vary as noted below. The sleeves vary in style from sleeves so wide and long that they almost touch the ground, to sleeves so tight that they have to be sewed over the forearm every time the dress is put on, cf.

An elaborate belt of silk and embroidery is worn knotted loosely at the very low waistline, and a brooch fastens the opening at the center neck. It was a dress which permitted exaggeration in many ways, in length of skirt and of sleeves, in lacing and in cost of materials. That the ladies of the period did not fail to avail themselves of its many possibilities is shown by the texts, by the invectives of the pulpit against these modes [ 57 ] and by an amusing caricature [ 58 ] of the Devil in ladies' dress. The material of the bliaut was one of the costly, highly prized silks and satins or velvets imported from the Orient, often woven or embroidered with gold thread and decorated with precious stones [ 59 ].

The bands of gold embroidery mentioned in the description of the whole costume, Erec , cited in the introduction, p. From the illustrations of the period it is evident that the bliaut was often cut in two parts, a long-waisted bodice fitting the figure closely, and a very full skirt either gathered or laid in very small pleats and sewed to the bodice several inches below the natural waist line, the seam being concealed by a band of embroidery, cf. The illustrations show this bodice to have been often very long-waisted, extending several inches below the natural waist line.

The adjustment to the figure was made by means of lacings on the sides, cf. This close adjustment by means of lacings revealed the slender, long waisted figure which was the ideal of beauty of the time, as is evident from the statues and the texts, Athis , , ; Gavin I, , 5 ; Enf. The chemise was also laced on the side, cf. This custom, which appears strange to us, but which we must accept upon the testimony of the texts, is mentioned also in regard to other dresses, cf.

The bliaut has always been assumed to be the very striking style of dress shown in the statue called Clotilde of Corbeil, to mention the best-known and most frequently copied example [ 60 ] , and by the queens of the twelfth century portal at Chartres [ 61 ]. This assumption was made originally on very little evidence, mainly on the frequency of appearance of both the costume in the iconography and the word in the texts, but there is no doubt that it is correct, for all the details of the bliaut mentioned in the texts correspond to those of the dress as shown on these statues.

Some details vary in the statues, as the cut of the sleeves or the belt ; but the most important features, i. Other styles of dress were worn as well, but the bliaut type was so frequent and so striking that it has been generally adopted as the typical dress of the Middle Ages.

For other illustrations, cf. In manuscripts: ms. Alexis at Hildesheim [ 62 ] ; Bib. IV, reproduced in Strutt, op. The bliaut was also worn by a nobleman as a court garment. It is described less frequently than the lady's, but seems to have had the same characteristics. It was of rich materials : Rol. Several instances have been noted in which a man's bliaut is mentioned as of other than the most costly materials.

One is Enf. Du Cange s. It is not mentioned as cut in two parts as was the lady's, and the illustrations show that it was cut in one piece. It is described as long, Aiol , : les bliaus trainans jusques as pies , and above 7 , but also as short The iconography shows it to have been as a rule shorter than the lady's bliaut. The iconography also shows the waist of the man's bliaut to have been close fitting, and the texts say it was laced :. The sleeves and the accessories, the belt and the brooch are not mentioned as frequently as in relation to the lady's costume, but in one case reference is made to sleeves closely fitted at the wrist :.

An epithet frequently applied to a man's bliaut is entailliez , appearing, according to Viollet-le-Duc, III, 50, at the end of the twelfth century, but found also as early as the middle of the century, Enf. The meaning of entailliez in this connection is not certain [ 63 ] but it probably means that the skirt was slashed or cut in points, as in the illustration in Herrad v. Landsberg, pl. Bliaus escarimant are referred to Pel. For other meanings cf. For further details as to the man's bliaut and for illustrations cf. In Aiol it is, in fact, mentioned as the last garment put on before the mantel.

Tobler's second definition Ueberwurf , a definition given also by Meyer-Lubke [ 64 ] and Korting [ 65 ] , is evidently used with the sense of this dialectical German word defined by Heyse [ 66 ] landsch. For illustrations, cf. Heyse, Handwb. Magdeburg, Botes are described by Godefroy, Comp. Enlart, cf. The new examples of bote noted in our period are of no aid in deciding this difference of opinion, both of which seem to have some justification from the other examples cited.

Botes are worn by monks :. It is possible that Godefroy's description is correct for the man's botes and Lacroix' for the lady's. Used with regard to costume, the boucle is the buckle of a belt. The omission of the period after riche in Boucherie's edition of Galerent makes it appear as if the noische were in the boucle , but this is not possible, for the noische, q. For other examples of boucle , cf. Marie, Guig. The membre, espine and mordant are mentioned along with the buckle as parts of the belt.

The espine, q. Used with mordant , however, boucle may indicate a clasp. For further discussion of this point see s. The term bourre occurring in G. It is used in this passage along with garmos and farder as an artificial aid to beauty. The iconography shows no evidences of padding used on the figure, such as one might assume that bourre meant, but a reasonable explanation may be found in the supposition that the sack-like envelope, cf.

XXXVIII, was stuffed with false hair or some other kind of padding by ladies whose tresses lacked the abundance and length which was considered a sign of beauty. This supposition finds support in a thirteenth century text :. In relation to dress, bouton is found in the modern sense of the word as used as an ornament or to fasten a garment. Enlart, 37, Boutons of gold or precious stones as decoration on articles other than clothes appear Chan.

As an ornament on clothes :. In chainse 17 , jupe 8 , they may have been used either as an ornament or as a fastening. Illustrations of buttons used as ornaments are shown by Enlart, fig. The expression ne valoir un bouton which occurs Mon. The ceinture is a belt worn with the dress. The elaborate and costly belts worn at this period have been described at length in the histories of costume, cf. From the texts we have further evidence as to the materials, which were of silk, or similar fabrics embroidered in gold, and of orfrois :.

The illustrations show that the man's belt was often made of leather, but the woman's costume shows as a rule the twisted and knotted belt of silk fig. There is one case in which a distinction is made between a ceinture of cloth? The illustrations show that the lady's belt was often wound twice around the waist and then tied in a loose knot, cf.

In the case of the tight fitting dresses, in which the belt was not needed to hold in the material at the waist, a sozceinte is mentioned as loosely tied :. The monuments show us that a belt was not always worn, or that if it was, it was often concealed by a fold of the dress. This is especially true of the eleventh century and the first part of the twelfth, cf. Later in the century, it is occasionally lacking, cf. For the appearance of the leather belt in the illustrations cf. Michel, La Sculpture en France , in Hist.

Bibliography, p. The cercle, cercel, cercelet was a chaplet of gold, worn by a lady of high rank as an ornament, and to hold the hair in place. Very often it was set with jewels, in which case it is practically a crown, though not always used as the insignia of royalty :. In three cases the cercle or cercelet is of orfrois , which makes it synonymous with one meaning of chapel, q.

Gay considers the cercle to have been a wreath of flowers as well as a chaplet of gold or ribbon, but it is probable that in the two cases where flowers are mentioned, 6 above and. This is supported by the reading of ms. C : un cercle d'or ; ms. H reads uns laceles ovres. In regard to this point of flower designs executed in gold and gems, cf. For illustrations of the cercle cf. The cercle in its most elaborate form as a crown is frequently seen as in fig.

The chainse was a dress of washable material. It was laid in pleats, and long. Other facts to be noted in regard to it are that at this period it was not synonymous with chemise , but distinct from the chemise and worn over it ; nor was it a dress worn under the bliaut , but an outer dress, worn as a house dress or at court ; also that it was more specifically a woman's dress, though there is one case where it is mentioned as worn by a man.

The view that the chainse was made of washable material is supported also by the very frequent references to chainses blancs , which convey the idea that they were of linen or a similar material. We have, moreover, not a single clear reference to a chainse being made of wool or silk, which would not be easily washable. Chainse blanc is mentioned Erec , , , , , , ;. This material was one which lent itself readily to pleating, probably by ironing after being washed :. Some erroneous opinions in regard to chainse need discussion.

Chemise and p. Cited by Gay. Quicherat, p. There is only one manuscript of Raoul de Cambrai , of which there have been two editions, that of Le Glay, in , probably the one used by Quicherat, and that of Meyer and Longnon [ 71 ] which contains the variants from Fauchet's copy of a since lost manuscript. In both the editions the passage to which Quicherat must refer reads : ed. Le Glay, p. Meyer et Longnon I. Quicherat's assumption that the chainse was worn under the bliaut , which has been followed by others [ 72 ] is based therefore on a mistaken quotation.

He was probably led into this error by the desire to give a name to the garment worn under the bliaut , showing at the neck, sleeves and often at the hem, which we are justified in identifying as the chemise. But whatever this under garment was called, there is no authority for thinking it the chainse , which is never mentioned as worn under another dress, but which was rather an outer dress interchangeable with the bliaut. Meyer et A. Longnon, S. F Quicherat's opinion that the chainse was an undergarment has already been disputed by Schultz,I, , who quotes, however, for the twelfth century, only the passage from Erec , 8 above.

Other passages from Erec can be mentioned in confirmation of Schultz' statement that the chainse was not an undergament. Enid arrives at court wearing :. The queen offers her a new bliaut , described at length, cf. Moreover, the following texts give additional evidence that the chainse was an outer garment.

When Aelis goes to court :. It is obviously impossible for the chainse to be anything but an outer dress, in these cases. It is worn as a house dress by Lu-siane :. The only garment worn over it was the mantel , 4 above, or the cape 10 , a further proof that it was an' outer dress, not an undergarment. It is worn with the pelice :. Also the definition of M. All the above passages with the exception of 2 , refer to the chainse as a woman's dress.

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The remaining examples add little information. For chainses gironez , a , Mort A. It was worn under more varying conditions than the elaborate bliaut , for while it is mentioned as a court dress in 15 , 16 above, and as a luxurious dress :. In 4 it is worn by a bourgeoise. The chainse seems to have been less elaborate than the bliaut , as embroidery at the neck and sleeves, and elaborate sleeves and belt are not mentioned in connection with it, as they so frequently are in describing the bliaut.

In the following passage :. The dress worn by the queen in fig. Chainsil is treated here because various scholars see below have erroneously considered it as the name of a garment, as well as the material of which the garment was made. As is generally recognized, chainsil was a kind of material which we find used a as a winding sheet, b for bed coverings, or c for garments:.

From the facts that chainsil was especially used as the material for the chemise see also the examples in Godefroy, s. This assumption is strengthened by the fact that it was washable :. Du Cange states that M. A closer investigation of the Middle Latin texts would be necessary to ascertain if the form with the suffix — il — did designate the garment itself, as well as the material of which the garment might be made. In any case, the differentiation between chainse for a garment, and chainsil for material is clear in our period.

Godefroy's second definition of chainsil, par extension, diverses choses faites de toile ou de tin, comme chemise, jupon, peignoir, voile, nappe , is not justified by his four examples, in each of which the idea of chainsil as a piece of material is more suitable than any of the meanings he suggests.

The reading chainsil for Lanval in Warnke's first edition, , of the Lais of Marie de France has been changed to the preferable reading chainse in the editions of and The passage Alex. The emendation cainsil from analogy with 3 6 , above would be preferable. The chape was a wide cape with a hood, worn by both sexes and all classes on a journey and for protection against the weather.

As a costly ecclesiastical garment the chape will not be discussed here [ 74 ]. Cabrol, Dict. A thief loses his cape at a game of dice at an inn, Jeu S. It is more especially a garment of the lower classes, as the mantel is of the nobility :. When adopted by noblemen it is of material better, though less costly, than that of the mantel , as it underwent a harder usage :. In Chron. Cappas manicatas are mentioned in a decree of the Lateran Council in [ 75 ]. XI, part I, p. A rain cape is mentioned several times : chape a pluie, G. It was sometimes lined : c Fils A. The chape is also mentioned in the following passages : Trist.

When the wide chape was wrapped around her, and the hood drawn over her face, a lady was well disguised :. The chape is also mentioned as a woman's garment in the following passages : Ors. In the sense of a complete covering the word is used figuratively, la cape del ciel, Rol. I, ; II, , It is difficult in the illustrations always to distinguish between the mantel and the chape. The mantel , from the ninth to the eleventh centuries, was worn over the head, cf. When it is shown as a handsome garment, ornamented with embroidered bands, as in fig. As the chape is specifically mentioned as the garment worn on a journey, there is no difficulty in identifying it with the cape shown in fig.

Here the circular hood is cut separately ; the chape is worn thrown back, and is shorter than the dress. A wrap is often shown in which there has been cut a circular opening framing the face ; this part of the garment then forms a kind of chaperon , Enlart, fig. It is probable, however, that the later chaperon proper was cut separately and sewed to the chape at the neck line, thus staying in place better than in the earlier cases discussed above, where there would be a constant pull on the head covering from the heavy material beneath.

A hood cut separate from the cape and of a different color appears on the wrap worn by Job's wife, fig. In the frescoes at Saint Savin [ 76 ] all three types appear contemporaneously, i. Landsberg, VIII, pl. The chapel or chapelet was 1 a wreath of flowers, 2. It is worn by a man, G. The word occurs also Gal. The French word chapel was adopted in Middle High German in the form schapel to indicate a wreath of flowers or a circle of gold or orfrois. Enlart, , ; Winter, , ; Weinhold, II, References to the chapel as a lady's hat are rare, but at least three occur, all toward the end of the century.

The earliest reference is probably that in Alex. In the French versions of Athis, Perceval and Era-clius hats are not mentioned, but they are in the Middle High German paraphrases of these texts :. The twelfth century iconography does not show hats as worn by ladies. The earliest illustration which I have noted is in a ms. For illustrations of men's hats cf.

The cap worn by Job, fig. The chaperon was a hood attached to the chape , also a short chape? As has been said, it was a part of the chape, q. When the latter was worn over the armor, the chaperon was drawn over the helmet :. It is especially noted as worn by monks : , Mon. There are no other details in regard to it, except that a lady's chaperon is lined with ermine and edged with sable, cf. The word occurs also as applied to men Trist. A lady draws the chaperon over her guimple so that she will not be recognized, Gal. The two are mentioned in G. Chauces are defined by Enlart, Glos.

This definition is not very precise, but, as Winter has pointed out, p. Godefroy's definition, Comp. This second passage proves the inaccuracy of Gay's definition applied to chauces in general: La partie du costume masculin couvrant le corps, de la ceinture aux pieds , for the style here described, while evidently existing, is described as provincial and old fashioned. Although woven stockings already existed at this period, along with those made of cloth, according to M. Enlart, Glos. Chauces de paile, Trist. Chauces de brun paile seem to have been fashionable towards the end of the twelfth century, for they are mentioned Gal.

Here the bands of black and red are probably cross gaiters, cf. The same detail of chauces cut to measure is noted of a lady's costume :. Mention of lacing the chauces as in Ales. Gay, s. Sorchauz or gaiters were also worn, cf. Godefroy, s. The passages which he quotes from Tristan B are found in the S. For further discussion as to chauces , cf. The illustrations add nothing to our knowledge of the chauces. The lady's stockings are rarely seen, even in glimpses, as they are concealed by the long skirt. The verb chaucier has a wider meaning than the noun chauces ; it signifies, in general, to put anything on the feet, as spurs, and with a more restricted meaning, to put on the shoes and stockings.

Chalcier , meaning to attach the spurs, is found :. For other examples referring to the lady's costume, cf. Winter, Wort-Register, s. It is used c , Ren. The chemise was an undergarment. The word occurs in the eighth century, Glos. In the twelfth century references to it are very frequent, and we may learn the following details, which seem to have been identical for the two sexes, except in the matter of length.

It was usually made of chainsil, q. This lacing might correspond to the lacing of the garment worn over the chemise , so that the flesh was exposed, cf. The brooch at the neck of the chemise is illustrated in fig. The illustrations show the man's dress to be shorter than the lady's as a rule :. These sleeves show very frequently in the illustrations, fig.

In warm weather a man might remove the cote or bliaut worn over the chemise, braies and chauces :. In many of the statues and illuminations of the period [ 78 ] there is apparent a garment worn under the outer dress and showing at the neck and sleeves. This has incorrectly been assumed to be the chainse , cf. In the illuminations it is shown as white, and in both statues and illuminations it is often laid in fine pleats as it is described in the texts. The materials of which the chemise was made were very fine and were evidently intended for display ; cf.

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This is in reference to the chemise as worn by nobles. That of the lower classes was undoubtedly of coarser material as chanvre , see above, p. An illustration of its cut may be found in the amulets of the fourteenth century modelled after the relic of an earlier period, la chemise de la Sainte Vierge [ 79 ] , which was preserved at Chartres. This relic is referred to in the texts, Pel. Loup de Naud, in Enlart, fig. For examples of the first meaning cf.

Godefroy and Gay, also. Tours , 93 : Hoc capitium chevazalie. Viollet-le-Duc, IV,, quotes Hippeau's reading with the definition, which must obviously be discarded, of kievetaille as partie des robes qui entourail la taille. For other passages in which one of these forms occurs, cf. Cliges , ; Perc. I have noted no examples of the last form in our period.

Viollet-le-Duc, III, , is one of the distinguishing characteristics of the twelfth century, and one which is not seen in the thirteenth, This flat collar may be cut square, round, or in a V, and often extended down the front of the dress. Coe is synonymous with train, q. The earliest example appears in Richeut : Grant coe trait par la podriere. For later examples cf. For illustrations cf. The coife is 1 the head piece of the armor ; 2 a style of head dress. For 1 see Gay, s. It is found as a head dress in O. Stroebe, p. Its occurrence in the twelfth century is rare. I have noted only the following examples.

One is the head dress of pilgrims :. In another it appears as a woman's head dress, different from a guimple in that it was a less formal head dress :. The cap worn by the woman in fig. Cordoan , originally leather of which the shoes were made, cf. The second example is cited by Godefroy, s.

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Worn as a part of the costume, the cor r oie is a belt of leather. That this belt was of leather is assumed from the use of the word courreie to indicate saddle straps, etc. The material is not mentioned in the texts of this period, though it is later. As part of the nobleman's dress one is described :.

It is to be noted that the frequent appearance of cor r oie in the texts coincides with the more frequent appearance in the illustrations of the leather belt, which, in the thirteenth century, supersedes the belt of silk or orfrois. With reference to clothing, cors means the bodice [of] a bliaut. Godefroy does not give it in this sense. The same terms are used in Folq. When the mantel was removed, the bodice of the dress, concealed before, was shown, as is indicated in the passage :. Quoted by Winter under las []. In other cases, as Ipom.

Illustrations of the dress cut in two distinct parts, i. The cote represents a simple type of everyday dress worn by both sexes and all classes. A related word occurs at an early date in OHG. That it was the simplest and most general form of garment is shown by its use to express a primitive garment. Adam and Eve make themselves coteles de fueilles qu'ensemble acousirent , a Rom. As a man's garment it is worn by all classes : by a peasant, a , Gar. Y ; by sergenz , , Theb. These examples range over the second half of the twelfth century.

The materials of which it was made are sometimes mentioned : the leper's cote is of de let burel, Tris. It was a house or work dress worn over the chemise : Erec , ; Ivain , ; but with the addition of the chape, Tris. B , or mantel, Troie , ; Erec , 97 ; Ivain , ; Perc. Toward the end of the century it is worn under the surcot, q. As a lower class dress it has a chaperon , cf.

Though it is early mentioned as worn with armor, Cor. B , , the term cote d'armes , which becomes frequent later, is not found until p. The omission of other details, and the lack of the epithets so often applied to more elaborate garments, confirm the conclusion stated above, that the man's cote was the simplest form of dress used.

The same is true in regard to the cote as a lady's dress, which is mentioned frequently but without description. It is worn by all classes : by children's nurses, Gal. The cote is long, Esc. It is a queen's dress, Lanc. It is worn with the surcot, Gal. Towards the end of the twelfth century the lady's cote , of simple cut but of costly material, is more frequently mentioned and can be worn at court :.

A cotele, cotelete is a diminutive of cote , Hist. As a simple, everyday dress, we find the cote illustrated as worn in the eleventh century in fig. Germain l'Auxerrois reproduced by Quicherat, p. These types of dress differ in some details, but they represent the plain house dress as contrasted with the bliaut worn on important occasions.

As has been said before, it is a mistake to look for a style unvarying in cut over a long period of time. A child's cotele is shown in fig. In general, any dress of a very plain style in our period may be identified with the cote , which in the thirteenth century became the prevailing type, perhaps through the simplicity characterising the reign of St Louis. The more frequent mention in the texts, towards the end of the twelfth century, of the cote as a dress worn by a noble lady, coincides with its more frequent appearance in the iconography.

The form chief appears to be an emendation of a later scribe, as S was written in the last part of the thirteenth century, at which time the meaning of chief and couvrechef had been extended beyond the idea of a cloth worn on the head cf. Faral [ 80 ] ascribes it to the end of the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century. Couvrechef , if to be read at all in our period, is probably a generic term, including coife, guimple, orel, louaille, q.

It is not in Gay. Desfubler , the opposite of afubler, q. En may stand for de son mantel , though this has not been previously mentioned. Meyer and Michelant, s. The translation for 14 and for 10 above suggested by M. Servois in his Glossary for Guillaume de Dole, s. For en pure le chief , cf.

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  • Free private parking is available on site reservation is not needed. It looks like something went wrong submitting this. Try again? Cancellation and prepayment policies vary according to accommodations type. Please enter the dates of your stay and check what conditions apply to your preferred room. This deposit will be fully refunded at check-out, as long as there isn't any damage to the property. The maximum number of children allowed in existing beds depends on the room you pick. Double-check your selected room for the maximum capacity.

    No age restriction. Cards accepted at this property. Camping la Simioune en Provence accepts these cards and reserves the right to temporarily hold an amount prior to arrival. Quiet hours. Please inform Camping la Simioune en Provence of your expected arrival time in advance. You can use the Special Requests box when booking, or contact the property directly using the contact details in your confirmation.

    Payment before arrival by bank transfer is required. The property will contact you after you book to provide instructions. It's recommended to bring your own vehicle since this property is not serviced by public transportation. A damage deposit of EUR is required on arrival.

    That's about This will be collected by credit card. You should be reimbursed on check-out. Your deposit will be refunded in full by credit card, subject to an inspection of the property.

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    Real stays. Real opinions. Read more. There was a problem loading the reviews. Try again. Open your list. Pas trop de monde. De rust en de kleinschaligheid beviel ons het beste. Piscine et aire de jeux pour les enfants. Error: Please enter a valid email address. Error: Oops! An error has occurred. We've sent you an email so you can confirm your subscription. Invite Hosts List Your Property. We have more than 70 million property reviews, and they're all from real, verified guests.

    The only way to leave a review is to first make a booking. That's how we know our reviews come from real guests who have stayed at the property. When guests stay at the property, they check out how quiet the room is, how friendly the staff is, and more. After their trip, guests tell us about their stay. We check for naughty words and verify the authenticity of all guest reviews before adding them to our site.

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    Sign in — opens a dialog box. We Price Match. Campground Camping la Simioune en Provence. Camping la Simioune en Provence Reserve now. Et le bungalow pas repris Laetitia, France. Wij huurden een chalet op camping Simioune. La petite ferme est un plus pour les jeunes enfants Eric, France. Eigenaresse niet echt heel vriendelijk, sanitair gebouw heel schoon, prima safari tent in een zeer bosrijke omgeving. Rustig, kleinschalig, kindvriendelijk, veel schaduw Eric-jan, Netherlands. Great location! Previous image of the property Next image of the property. Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property Image of the property.