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In spite of these moves, the language has remained strong, and Afrikaans newspapers and magazines continue to have large circulation figures. Indeed, the Afrikaans-language general-interest family magazine Huisgenoot has the largest readership of any magazine in the country. The Afrikaans film trilogy Bakgat first released in caused a reawakening of the Afrikaans film Industry which has been dead since the mid to late s and Belgian-born singer Karen Zoid 's debut single " Afrikaners is Plesierig " released caused a resurgence in the Afrikaans music industry as well as gave rise to the Afrikaans Rock genre.
Afrikaans has two monuments erected in its honour. Modern Dutch and Afrikaans share over 90 percent of their vocabulary. Afrikaans speakers are able to learn Dutch within a comparatively short time. Native Dutch speakers pick up written Afrikaans even more quickly, due to its simplified grammar, [ citation needed ] whereas understanding spoken Afrikaans might need more effort.
Afrikaans speakers can learn Dutch pronunciation with little training. This has enabled Dutch and Belgian companies to outsource their call centre operations to South Africa. Post-apartheid South Africa has seen a loss of preferential treatment by the government for Afrikaans, in terms of education, social events, media TV and radio , and general status throughout the country, given that it now shares its place as official language with ten other languages.
Nevertheless, Afrikaans remains more prevalent in the media — radio, newspapers and television  — than any of the other official languages, except English. More than book titles in Afrikaans are published annually. Despite the challenges of demotion and emigration that it faces in South Africa, the Afrikaans vernacular remains competitive, being popular in DSTV pay channels and several internet sites, while generating high newspaper and music CD sales.
A resurgence in Afrikaans popular music since the late s has invigorated the language, especially among a younger generation of South Africans. Such media also prove popular with the extensive Afrikaans-speaking expatriate communities who seek to retain language proficiency in a household context. After years of slumber, Afrikaans language cinema is showing signs of new vigour. The film Ouma se slim kind , the first full-length Afrikaans movie since Paljas in , is seen as the dawn of a new era in Afrikaans cinema.
Several short films have been created and more feature-length movies, such as Poena is Koning and Bakgat both in have been produced, besides the Afrikaans-language film Skoonheid , which was the first Afrikaans film to screen at the Cannes Film Festival. The film Platteland was also released in Afrikaans seems to be returning to the SABC. SABC3 announced early in that it would increase Afrikaans programming due to the "growing Afrikaans-language market and [their] need for working capital as Afrikaans advertising is the only advertising that sells in the current South African television market".
In Namibia, the percentage of Afrikaans speakers declined from The major concentrations are in Hardap Following early dialectal studies of Afrikaans, it was theorised that three main historical dialects probably existed after the Great Trek in the s. Remnants of these dialects still remain in present-day Afrikaans, although the standardising effect of Standard Afrikaans has contributed to a great levelling of differences in modern times. There is also a prison cant , known as soebela or sombela , which is based on Afrikaans, yet heavily influenced by Zulu.
This language is used as a secret language in prison and is taught to initiates. The term Kaapse Afrikaans "Cape Afrikaans" is sometimes erroneously used to refer to the entire Western Cape dialect; it is more commonly used for a particular sociolect spoken in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa. Kaapse Afrikaans was once spoken by all population groups. However, it became increasingly restricted to the Cape Coloured ethnic group in Cape Town and environs.
Kaapse Afrikaans is still understood by the large majority of native Afrikaans speakers in South Africa. Kaapse Afrikaans preserves some features more similar to Dutch than to Afrikaans. Kaapse Afrikaans has some other features not typically found in Afrikaans.
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Kaapse Afrikaans is also characterised by much code-switching between English and Afrikaans, especially in the inner-city and lower socio-economic status areas of Cape Town. Some of the characteristics of Oranjerivierafrikaans are the plural form -goed Ma- goed , meneergoed , variant pronunciation such as in kjerk "Church" and gjeld "money" and the ending -se , which indicates possession.
Because of emigration and migrant labour, more than , Afrikaans speakers may live in the United Kingdom. Due to the early settlement of a Cape Malay community in Cape Town , who are now known as Coloureds , numerous Classical Malay words were brought into Afrikaans. Some of these words entered Dutch via people arriving from, what is now known as, Indonesia as part of their colonial heritage. Malay words in Afrikaans include: . These words have become common in South Africa to an extent of being used in many other South African languages. Some of these words also exist in Dutch, like sambreel "parasol",  though usage is less common and meanings can slightly differ.
Some of these words also exist in Dutch, though with a more specific meaning: assegaai for example means "South-African tribal javelin" [ citation needed ] and karos means "South-African tribal blanket of animal hides". Loanwords from Bantu languages in Afrikaans include the names of indigenous birds, such as mahem and sakaboela , and indigenous plants, such as maroela and tamboekie gras. The revoking of the Edict of Nantes on the 22nd of October was a milestone in the history of South Africa , for it marked the beginning of the great Huguenot exodus from France.
It is estimated that between , and , Protestants left France between and ; out of these, according to Louvois , , had received military training. A measure of the calibre of these immigrants and of their acceptance by host countries in particular South Africa is given by H. Morton in his book: In search of South Africa London, The Huguenots were responsible for a great linguistic contribution to Afrikaans, particularly in terms of military terminology as many of them fought on the battlefields during the wars of the Great Trek. In Afrikaans grammar, there is no distinction between the infinitive and present forms of verbs, with the exception of the verbs 'to be' and 'to have':.
In addition, verbs do not conjugate differently depending on the subject. For example,. Only a handful of Afrikaans verbs have a preterite , namely the auxiliary wees "to be" , the modal verbs , and the verb dink "to think".
Bakgat Grap Boek (Afrikaans, Paperback)
The preterite of mag "may" is rare in contemporary Afrikaans. Therefore, there is no distinction in Afrikaans between I drank and I have drunk. Also in colloquial German, the past tense is often replaced with the perfect. When telling a longer story, Afrikaans speakers usually avoid the perfect and simply use the present tense, or historical present tense instead as is possible, but less common, in English as well.
A particular feature of Afrikaans is its use of the double negative ; it is classified in Afrikaans as ontkennende vorm and is something that is absent from the other West Germanic standard languages. Both French and San origins have been suggested for double negation in Afrikaans. While double negation is still found in Low Franconian dialects in West-Flanders and in some "isolated" villages in the centre of the Netherlands such as Garderen , it takes a different form, which is not found in Afrikaans. The following is an example:. The -ne was the Middle Dutch way to negate but it has been suggested that since -ne became highly non-voiced, nie or niet was needed to complement the -ne.
With time the -ne disappeared in most Dutch dialects. The double negative construction has been fully grammaticalised in standard Afrikaans and its proper use follows a set of fairly complex rules as the examples below show:. A notable exception to this is the use of the negating grammar form that coincides with negating the English present participle. In this case there is only a single negation. Certain words in Afrikaans arise due to grammar. For example, moet nie , which literally means "must not", usually becomes moenie ; although one does not have to write or say it like this, virtually all Afrikaans speakers will change the two words to moenie in the same way as do not shifts to don't in English.
The Dutch word het "it" in English does not correspond to het in Afrikaans. The Dutch words corresponding to Afrikaans het are heb , hebt , heeft and hebben. There are many parallels between the Dutch orthography conventions and those used for Afrikaans. There are 26 letters. In Afrikaans, many consonants are dropped from the earlier Dutch spelling. For example, slechts 'only' in Dutch becomes slegs in Afrikaans. Another difference is the indefinite article, 'n in Afrikaans and een in Dutch. The diminutive suffix in Afrikaans is -tjie , whereas in Dutch it is -tje , hence a "bit" is bie tjie in Afrikaans and bee tje in Dutch.
The letters c , q , x , and z occur almost exclusively in borrowings from French, English, Greek and Latin.
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This is usually because words that had c and ch in the original Dutch are spelled with k and g , respectively, in Afrikaans. Similarly original qu and x are spelt kw and ks , respectively. For example, ekwatoriaal instead of equatoriaal , and ekskuus instead of excuus. Diacritics are ignored when alphabetising, though they are still important, even when typing the diacritic forms may be difficult.
A few short words in Afrikaans take initial apostrophes. In modern Afrikaans, these words are always written in lower case except if the entire line is uppercase , and if they occur at the beginning of a sentence, the next word is capitalised. Three examples of such apostrophed words are 'k, 't, 'n. The last the indefinite article is the only apostrophed word that is common in modern written Afrikaans, since the other examples are shortened versions of other words ek and het , respectively and are rarely found outside of a poetic context.
Although there are many different dialects and accents, the transcription would be fairly standard. In the Dutch language the word Afrikaans means African, in the general sense. Consequently, Afrikaans is commonly denoted as Zuid-Afrikaans. This ambiguity also exists in Afrikaans itself and is either resolved in the context of its usage, or by using Afrikaner for an African person , and Afrika- in the adjective sense.
A handful of Afrikaans words are exactly the same as in English. The following Afrikaans sentences, for example, are exactly the same in the two languages, in terms of both their meaning and spelling; only their pronunciation differs. Psalm 23 translation: [ citation needed ]. Die Here is my Herder, ek kom niks kort nie. Hy laat my in groen weivelde rus. Hy bring my by waters waar daar vrede is. Hy gee my nuwe krag. Hy lei my op die regte paaie tot eer van Sy naam.
Selfs al gaan ek deur donker dieptes, sal ek nie bang wees nie, want U is by my. In U hande is ek veilig.
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Psalm 23 alternative translation: [ citation needed ]. Die Here is my Herder, niks sal my ontbreek nie. Hy verkwik my siel; Hy lei my in die spore van geregtigheid, om sy Naam ontwil. Al gaan ek ook in 'n dal van doodskaduwee, ek sal geen onheil vrees nie; want U is met my: u stok en u staf die vertroos my. Lord's Prayer Afrikaans New Living translation [ citation needed ]. Ons Vader in die hemel, laat U Naam geheilig word.
Laat U koningsheerskappy spoedig kom. Laat U wil hier op aarde uitgevoer word soos in die hemel. Gee ons die porsie brood wat ons vir vandag nodig het. Bewaar ons sodat ons nie aan verleiding sal toegee nie; en bevry ons van die greep van die Bose. Want van U is die koninkryk, en die krag, en die heerlikheid, tot in ewigheid. Lord's Prayer Original translation : [ citation needed ]. Onse Vader wat in die hemel is, laat U Naam geheilig word; laat U koninkryk kom; laat U wil geskied op die aarde, net soos in die hemel.
Gee ons vandag ons daaglikse brood; en vergeef ons ons skulde soos ons ons skuldenaars vergewe en laat ons nie in die versoeking nie maar verlos ons van die Bose Want aan U behoort die koninkryk en die krag en die heerlikheid tot in ewigheid.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. West Germanic language, spoken in South Africa and Namibia. For peoples and persons from Africa, see Africans. Language family. Writing system. Latin using Afrikaans alphabet Afrikaans Braille. Signed forms. Regions shaded dark blue represent areas of concentrated Afrikaans-speaking communities.
Main article: Bible translations into Afrikaans. Main article: Afrikaans grammar. Main article: Afrikaans phonology. Afrikaans is rooted in seventeenth century dialects of Dutch; see Holm , p.
Afrikaans is variously described as a creole , a partially creolised language, or a deviant variety of Dutch; see Sebba , p. For grammar and spelling; see Sebba , p. For written mutual intelligibility; see Sebba , p. It has by far the largest geographical distribution; see Alant , p. Afrikaans is a lingua franca of Namibia; see Deumert , p.
Afrikaans has Afrikaans has a total of 16 million speakers; see Machan , p. About 9 million people speak Afrikaans as a second or third language; see Alant , p. L2 "Black Afrikaans" is spoken, with different degrees of fluency, by an estimated 15 million; see Stell — , p.
Glottolog 3. Pithouse, C. Mitchell, R. Heese Die herkoms van die Afrikaner, — [ The origin of the Afrikaner ] in Afrikaans. Cape Town: A. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Abel Coetzee. Afrikaner Pers. Retrieved 17 September Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. Archived PDF from the original on 13 May Statistics South Africa Superweb.
Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 21 August New Africa Books. Retrieved 23 August The Dutch Language: A Survey. Brill Archive. Retrieved 3 November Language in South Africa. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 18 May Pidgins and Creoles: References survey. Retrieved 19 May Contact languages: pidgins and creoles. Palgrave Macmillan.
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Encyclopedia of bilingualism and bilingual education. Multilingual Matters Ltd. Language change: contributions to the study of its causes. Walter de Gruyter. Spelling and society: the culture and politics of orthography around the world. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. University of Groningen. Ana Deumert. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Retrieved 10 November Archived from the original PDF on 21 December Lycos Retriever.
Archived from the original on 20 November Receptive Multilingualism: Linguistic analyses, language policies and didactic concepts. Linfield, interview in Salmagundi; Retrieved 22 September Archived from the original on 31 August Washington, DC: University Press. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Oxford, UK: Elsevier. From Khoekhoe foreignertalk via Hottentot Dutch to Afrikaans: the creation of a novel grammar.
Frankfurt-am-Main: Peter Lang. Area Handbook for the Republic of South Africa. Slavery in Dutch South Africa ed. Archived from the original on 12 August Retrieved 30 March South African History Online. Davis, De Waal Overview. Publication Timeline. Most widely held works by De Waal Davis.
Braai buddy by De Waal Davis Book 4 editions published between and in Afrikaans and English and held by 22 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Braai buddy 2 by De Waal Davis 4 editions published between and in English and held by 13 WorldCat member libraries worldwide For those who are tired of braaiing the same old chops and wors and MSG-soaked bottled sauces, this is a seriously different book on braaiing. Following the phenomenal success of Braai Buddy and numerous requests for a sequel, author de Waal Davis has once again compiled a magnificent collection of international recipes modified and adapted to South Africa's favourite national pastime - the braai.
In keeping with current trends in taste and cooking style, he has included sections on gas cooking, the pros and cons of wood versus gas and classic 'steakhouse' sauces. The potjie section has recipe. Bakgat braai 2 by De Waal Davis Book 2 editions published between and in Afrikaans and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Vir diegene wat moeg is daarvoor om dieselfde ou tjops en wors te braai en vir gebottelde souse wat MSG bevat, is hierdie 'n boek met 'n ander benadering tot braai. Na die ongelooflike sukses van Bakgat Braai en talle versoeke vir 'n vervolg, het outeur De Waal Davis weereens 'n uitnemende versameling internasionale resepte aangepas vir Suid-Afrika se gunsteling tydverdryf - braai.