- Release Notes for Python 2.7.14
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Click here for windows installation instructions. Click here for linux instructions. Suppose you want to install a package called requests which is used to make HTTP requests. You need to issue the following command. Note : pip. Alternatively add the whole path to PATH environment variable. This way you can access pip from any directory. You can use the following command to get information about a installed package, i. This site generously supported by DataCamp. Join over a million other learners and get started learning Python for data science today!
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Release Notes for Python 2.7.14
Patch by Chandru. IDLE - Issue idle. Patch by Sridhar Ratnakumar. Documentation - Issue List the built-in functions in a table in functions. This causes issue to appear again. Patch by Lorenzo M. Patch by Arfrever. Patch by Troy J. Patch written by W. Trevor King. Patch by Jeffrey Finkelstein. Now sendall properly calls signal handlers if necessary, and retries sending if these returned successfully, including on sockets with a timeout. RawIOBase now handles non-blocking readinto returning None correctly. Also, fix various SSLSocket methods to raise socket.
Original patch by Andrew Bennetts. This prevents user-created self-referencing ordered dictionaries from becoming permanently uncollectable GC garbage. Fixed by salting the value. Now the original error is re-raised. Original patch by Brian Brazil. SequenceMatcher gets a new parameter, autojunk, which can be set to False to turn off the previously undocumented 'popularity' heuristic. Patch by Terry Reedy and Eli Bendersky - Issue urllib2 does a retry for Basic Authentication failure instead of falling into recursion.
Patch by Eli Bendersky. OrderedDict were returning the unordered versions inherited from dict. Those methods are now overridden to provide ordered views. Report and original patch by Jason V. Original patch by Ryan Kelly. Thread-local objects involved in reference cycles will be deallocated timely by the cyclic GC, even if the underlying thread is still running. ElementInclude to include the tail of the current node. This is how it is supposed to work, wget and curl do the same. Previous behavior was wrong. Now an IOError is raised instead. Patch by chuck Jan Hosang.
This was due to a dangerous iteration over 'locals ' in Context. Extension Modules - Issue Fix a crash occurring when using the pyexpat module with expat version 2. Fixes a regression introduced by issue Patch by Pascal Chambon. Patch by Marcin Bachry. Struct object. In particular, os. Build - Issue Allow the socket module to build on OpenSolaris. It used to be built with bzip2's makefile. This feature now also supports the ZSH shell. Tests - Issue Wait until subprocess completes initialization.
Library - Issue Eliminate subtle timing issues in thread-local objects by getting rid of the cached copy of thread-local attribute dictionary. Extension Modules - Issue Fix security vulnerability CVE in the audioop module, ensure that the input string length is a multiple of the frame size. See tracker issue for details. Library - Issue cleanup asyncore. SMTPServer constructor raises an exception. Patch by Anatoly Techtonik.
Misc - Issue Add maintainers. Coercion for arithmetic operations was already removed in 2. Patch by Daniel Stutzbach. Library - Issue SkipTest in unittest. Extension Modules - Issue If the system readline library is linked against ncurses, the curses module must be linked against ncurses as well. Otherwise it is not safe to load both the readline and curses modules in an application.
Build - Display installer warning that Windows won't be supported in future releases. Library - Issue Make the zlib module's error messages more informative when the zlib itself doesn't give any detailed explanation. The cheap inheritance has been deprecated. Patch by Tres Seaver.
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In many cases this order wasn't being followed, leading to the wrong Python exception being raised. Also ensure that calling close several times is supported. Patch by Yaniv Aknin. It should correctly return an empty response now. Based on initial patch by Lennart Regebro. Patch by Kyle VanderBeek.
Also make that method friendlier with applications wanting to continue using the socket in clear-text mode, by disabling OpenSSL's internal readahead. Thanks to Darryl Miles for guidance. This improves compatibility with patch tools. This allows using the unmodified libffi library. Tests - Issue Add a zlib test ensuring that an incomplete stream can be handled by a decompressor object without errors it returns incomplete uncompressed data. Patch by Paul Moore. Patches written by Jerry Seutter. Optimization was unintentionally turned on in gcc --with-pydebug builds in 2.
Misc - Update the Vim syntax highlight file. Counter now supports a subtract method. Comparisons involving a quiet NaN are unchanged. Each line is read on demand and the named file is compiled immediately. See issue This makes Fraction complex comparisons consistent with int complex, float complex, and complex complex comparisons. The error is now silenced. The former is deprecated. Add -i option. If the log file does not exist, the current time is used as the basis for the computation.
The cElementTree module is updated too. This is a behavior change, so email's minor version number is now bumped, to version 4. Extension Modules - Issue Fix unsigned long long bug in libffi on Sparc v8. This update drops support for Berkeley DB 4. It also produces a DeprecationWarning in this case. In Python 2. Build - Issue For gdb7, a python-gdb.
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The function declaration, which was kept for backwards compatibility reasons, is now removed the macro was introduced in ! All existing Python CObjects in the main distribution have been converted to capsules. Patch by Gregory Nofi. Now it matches other numeric types. Library - Issue Changes to urllib.
Previously only some arguments were converted.
BadStatusLine exceptions. Extension Modules - The sqlite3 module was updated to pysqlite 2. This fixes several obscure bugs and allows loading SQLite extensions from shared libraries. The import lock is now reinitialized after fork. Tests requiring docstrings are skipped. Thanks to Florent Xicluna who helped with the patch.
On Windows, the system C library would return a bogus result; on Solaris, it was possible to crash the interpreter. Patch by Stefan Krah. Patch by Florent Xicluna. The macro now returns a statically allocated empty string instead. Library - Issue Fix issue in MutableMapping. These raw characters are allowed by the XML specification, and are necessary when outputting e. PHP code in a processing instruction. Patch by Neil Muller.
Patch by Brian Curtin. It would previously change the file position to the given argument, which goes against the tradition of ftruncate and other truncation APIs. Patch by Nir Aides. This ensures that the upload and register commands send the correct values to PyPI without any error. Backported from py3k by Florent Xicluna, with some additional tests. GzipFile reading zero-padded files. Initial patch by Matt Giuca. Initial patch by Collin Winter. Also disable caching of powers of 5. They were previously living in the sandbox.
These functions and methods now raise TypeError instead.
The behaviour now conforms to that described in C99 Annex F. UnixCCompiler recognizes gcc when it has a fully qualified configuration prefix. Initial patch by Arfrever. The warning was annoying since there's no alternative to cPickle if you care about performance. Initial patch by Brian Curtin. This occurs on long passwords. Initial patch by JP St. Patch by Tatsuhiro Tsujikawa.
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That behavior is for 3. For the 'L' format code which previously had no warning there is now a DeprecationWarning. Build - Issue Allow --with-dbmliborder to specify that no dbms will be built. Tests - Issue Instead of running a self-test which was failing when called with no arguments, doctest. This only affects 'inf' and 'nan', since 'f' no longer converts to 'g' for large values. Previously it gave a string based on rounding x to 17 decimal digits. On platforms where the correctly-rounded strtod and dtoa code is not supported see below , repr is unchanged.
Places these conversions occur include: str for floats and complex numbers; the float and complex constructors; old-style and new-style numeric formatting; serialization and deserialization of floats and complex numbers using marshal, pickle and json; parsing of float and imaginary literals in Python code; Decimal-to-float conversion. The conversions use a Python-adapted version of David Gay's well-known dtoa.
This code is supported on Windows, and on Unix-like platforms using gcc, icc or suncc as the C compiler. There may be a small number of platforms on which correct operation of this code cannot be guaranteed, so the code is not used: notably, this applies to platforms where the C double format is not IEEE binary64, and to platforms on x86 hardware where the x87 FPU is set to bit precision and Python's configure script is unable to determine how to change the FPU precision.
On these platforms conversions use the platform strtod and dtoa, as before. The input can now contain Windows and Mac newlines and is no longer required to end in a newline. Patch by Adam Olsen. There should be no other effect than a small decrease in memory use. Patch by Christopher Tur Lesniewski-Laas. Patch by Scott Dial. The tables for code points representing numeric values, white spaces or line breaks are now generated from the official Unicode Character Database files, and include information from the Unihan.
Patch by Marco N. This makes it consistent with float "1e" and interpretation of real and imaginary literals. Previously, the behavior the same but with a default precision of 6. This also affects the new complex. Patch by Nick Barnes and Victor Stinner. This can reduce the size of collections and therefore the garbage collection overhead on long-running programs, depending on their particular use of datatypes. Add --enable-big-digits option to configure, which overrides the default. Add sys. As a result traceback. Means the DeprecationWarning from Python 2. These include list , filter , map , zip , and bytearray.
Original patch by Neil Schemenauer. Original patch by Neal Norwitz. On a typical machine this saves 3 bytes of memory on average per string allocation. Behavior now matches other reversed iterators. The file descriptor is still kept open but the file object behaves like a closed file. Now it correctly refers to the initial element.
This gives improved memory leak detection when running under Valgrind, while taking advantage of pymalloc at other times. Library - Add count and reverse methods to collections. Patch by Stephen Emslie. Patch by Jean-Paul Calderone. Patch by Robert Collins. Patch by Pablo Mouzo. Patch by Brian Quinlan. Help provided by David Bolen. Patch by Gabriel Genellina. This allows applications that run other Python scripts to support the same flexibility as the CPython command line itself. The default timeout is 20 seconds, which should be amply sufficient for local connections.
TextTestRunner objects to be pickled and unpickled. Patch by Michael Broghton. This fixes inconsistencies and test failures on systems with slightly bogus mtime behaviour. It also properly flushes it afterwards to avoid the terminal echoing the input afterwards on OSes such as Solaris. Also fix buggy handling of large arguments those with coefficient longer than the current precision in shift and rotate. Initial patch by Ezio Melotti.
StringIO and io. BytesIO instances are now picklable with protocol 2. Patch by Kirk McDonald. Patch by egreen. Initial patch by Sridhar Ratnakumar and Michael Haubenwallner. Also, fix infinite recursion in long Decimal 'nan'. Grid widget. Text methods when creating a ScrolledText. This bug was not present in the pure Python implementation.
The socket. Previously it was restricted to accepting . Extension, so the behavior is similar when used with -O. All old names should still work. Also add correct handling of infinities and nans for comparisons with float. Thanks to Lucas Prado Melo for initial fix and collaboration on the tests. Original patch by Sridhar Ratnakumar. Patch by Floris Bruynooghe. Patch by Hirokazu Yamamoto. The ClassTestSuite class has been removed. Original patch by Christopher Li, changes made by Senthil Kumaran.
Some platforms have a process identifier type wider than the standard C integer type. Patch by Farhan Ahmad, test by Marcin Bachry. Feedback and tests on pywin32 by Tim Golden. Initial patch by Roumen Petrov. Patch by Derek Morr. Patch by Brodie Rao, tests by Daniel Diniz. Initial patch by kxroberto. Original patch by Floris Bruynooghe. Original patch by David Cournapeau. This also means getfp method now returns the real fp. Proposal and original patch by Jake McGuire. Contributed by Google.
Original patch by Rauli Ruohonen. Initial patch by Paul Moore. Initial fix by Steven Bethard. Initial fix by Wayne Davison. Added docs to note the limitation. Implemented in unittest. This allows for much simpler resource allocation and deallocation during tests.
If False main doesn't call sys. TestClass" from the command line. TestResult has new startTestRun and stopTestRun methods; called immediately before and after a test run. Default assertTrue and assertFalse messages are now useful. TestCase has a longMessage attribute. This defaults to False, but if set to True useful error messages are shown in addition to explicit messages passed to assert methods. Helps prevent import deadlocking in threads. Initial patch by Georg Brandl. Patch applied to work around this issue. Lock " works now. Contributed in part by Google.
That caused tarfile. This allows OrderedDicts to be built by the decoder. Original patch by Tim Golden. Dialog only after it is has been populated and properly configured in order to prevent window flashing. Original patch by Akira Kitada. IncompleteRead's repr doesn't include all of the data all ready received. TempdirManager, to avoid writing in the tests directory. Initial patch by Amaury Forgeot d'Arc.
Patch by Philip Jenvey. This avoids a timing hole thanks to the old reliance on the ctime of the files involved. This is a regression which did not occur in 2. Initial patch by Andi Vajda. Patch by Robert Hancock. Patch by Douglas Greiman. Patch by Ross Light. Initial patch by Dave Peterson. See issue Ttk support for Tkinter. This is consistent with the behaviour of the traditional 2. Without this check it is possible to segfault the interpreter. Counter for rapid and convenient counting. The default value remains the current time. The information can be used by e. Patch by Jacques Frechet.
Initial solution by Guy Dalberto. Original patch by Philip Jenvey. Original patch by Thomas Heller. BufferedRWPair's closed property now functions properly. IncrementalNewlineDecoder when a carriage return encodes to more than one byte in the source encoding e. UTF and gets split on a chunk boundary. Original patch by Alexander Belopolsky. This change includes a NullHandler which does nothing; it will be of use to library developers who want to avoid the "No handlers could be found for logger XXX" message which can appear if the library user doesn't configure logging. GetCreatorAndType now always returns a big-endian result, to be consistent with Apple tools.
Fix library detection on biarch systems. Try to rely on ldconfig only, without using objdump and gcc. Patch by Weeble. This fixes a reported problem with the --with-tsc build on x Configure now explicitly tells you about this. It creates a python Patch by Clinton Roy. Documentation - Issue Fixed the Distutils configuration files location explanation for Windows. Thanks to Carl Chenet. This is in preparation for but not strictly related to issue , short float repr. Previously, it raised TypeError.
Documentation added. Extension Modules - Issue Add posix. Previously it also matched characters with category 'No'. Packing an out-of-range integer now consistently raises struct. Note: as of Python 2. NOTE: Undone in 2. Can be combined with -j. The previous method of reaping threads could return successfully while some Thread objects were still referenced. Misc - Issue Auto-detect whether a C file uses tabs or spaces in Vim. Library - Issue Allow repeated calls to turtle. Screen, by making it a true singleton object.
Build - Bug Package the 2to3 script as 2to3. Consequently, both exception types are caught and silenced. Build - Issue Include a licensing statement regarding the Microsoft C runtime in the Windows installer. Library - Issue Pickling a list or a dict uses less local variables, to reduce stack usage in the case of deeply nested objects. Morsel gained the httponly attribute. Added a PendingDeprecationWarning in the old module, it will be deprecated in the future. FileIO gave unhelpful error message when trying to open a directory. Tests - Issue Add test. Build - Issue Use a different upgrade code for Win64 installers.
This is a backwards compatibility feature; in 3. Now it properly raises an OverflowError. Library - Issue Added some missing basic types in ctypes. Symbol have been deprecated for removal in 3. The version reported by these tools does not necessarily follow the python version numbering scheme, so the module is less strict when parsing it. Several types which did not meet the rules for hash invariants and were already unhashable in 3. Mapping, collections. Set, unittest. TestSuite, xml. NamedNodeMap, numbers. Number, UserList. ABCMeta from 'inspect'.
Because modules are cached, all subsequent imports of rfc will not raise a visible DeprecationWarning. Commands associated to menu entries were not deleted. This should not affect anybody since the re. DictReader's fieldnames attribute a property so that upon first access it can be automatically initialized from the csv file if it wasn't initialized during instantiation.
This problem only affected files opened using the new "io" module, not the built-in open function. Build - Generate the PatternGrammar pickle during "make install". The disclaimers regarding lack of coverage of new-style classes have also been removed, since the coverage is now fairly reasonable. This adds the prefix 0b, 0o, or 0x, respectively. To allow collections. Hashable to remain meaningful in the presence of the default hash implementation object. For example, slice None, , 1. This was a regression from 2. Library - Issue ctypes.
This is both unnecessary HTTP allows text content to be sent in several forms and wrong because the actual transmitted size could differ from the content-length. The problem had been corrected in the 2. Allow writing Zip files with archives by setting the 'comment' attribute of a ZipFile. Popen if the select system call is interrupted by a signal. BZFile iterator to release its internal lock properly when raising an exception due to the bz2file being closed.
Prevents a deadlock. HTTPSConnection Host: headers no longer include the redundant "" port number designation when the connection is using the default https port Tests - test. Build - Issue Build sqlite3 as sqlite3. Documentation - Document that robotparser has been renamed to urllib. Also fixed a bug in error handling when 'message' and 'category' were both set to None, triggering a bus error.
Setup a private space for you and your coworkers to ask questions and share information. I have to run a Python script on a Windows server. How can I know which version of Python I have, and does it even really matter? I was thinking of updating to latest version of Python. Although the question is "which version am I using? You may have other versions installed and this can cause problems, particularly when installing additional modules.
This is my rough-and-ready approach to finding out what versions are installed:. For me. If you have Python installed then the easiest way you can check the version number is by typing "python" in your command prompt. It will show you the version number and if it is running on 32 bit or 64 bit and some other information.
For some applications you would want to have a latest version and sometimes not. It depends on what packages you want to install or use. I have Python 3. This is what worked for me in the command prompt and git bash:. Note: python , python --version , python -V , Python , Python --version , Python -V did not work for me. Posted this answer in case others had the same issue.
If you already in a REPL window and don't see the welcome message with version number you can use help to see the major and minor version. To verify the Python version for commands on Windows, run the following commands in a command prompt and verify the output. Thank you for your interest in this question. Because it has attracted low-quality or spam answers that had to be removed, posting an answer now requires 10 reputation on this site the association bonus does not count.
Would you like to answer one of these unanswered questions instead? Learn more about Teams. Which version of Python do I have installed?